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We consider the problem of updating arbitrary routes in a software-defined network in a (transiently) loop-free manner. We are interested in fast network updates, i.e., in schedules which minimize the number of interactions (i.e., rounds) between the controller and the network nodes. We first prove that this problem is difficult in general: The problem of(More)
The transformation of wild animals into domestic ones available for human nutrition was a key prerequisite for modern human societies. However, no other domestic species has had such a substantial impact on the warfare, transportation, and communication capabilities of human societies as the horse. Here, we show that the analysis of ancient DNA targeting(More)
Networks are critical for the security of many computer systems. However, their complex and asynchronous nature often renders it difficult to formally reason about network behavior. Accordingly, it is challenging to provide correctness guarantees, especially during network updates. This paper studies how to update networks while maintaining a most basic(More)
Domestic horses represent a genetic paradox: although they have the greatest number of maternal lineages (mtDNA) of all domestic species, their paternal lineages are extremely homogeneous on the Y-chromosome. In order to address their huge mtDNA variation and the origin and history of maternal lineages in domestic horses, we analyzed 1961 partial d-loop(More)
Ribosomal DNA in sturgeon is informative when analyzed at the molecular level because it bears unique characteristics that are, to a certain extent, ancestral within vertebrates. In this paper, we examine the structure and the molecular evolution of the 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region in 13 sturgeon species, comparing both the 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes(More)
The two species of Atlantic sea sturgeon on either shore of the North Atlantic, Acipenser sturio in Europe and A. oxyrinchus in North America, probably diverged with the closure of the Tethys Sea and the onset of the North Atlantic Gyre 15-20 million years ago, and contact between them was then presumably precluded by geographic distance. Here we present(More)
Przewalski's horses (PHs, Equus ferus ssp. przewalskii) were discovered in the Asian steppes in the 1870s and represent the last remaining true wild horses. PHs became extinct in the wild in the 1960s but survived in captivity, thanks to major conservation efforts. The current population is still endangered, with just 2,109 individuals, one-quarter of which(More)
—The virtualization trend in today's Internet decou-ples services from the constraints of the underlying physical infrastructure. This decoupling has the potential to facilitate more flexible and efficient resource allocations: the service can be realized at any place in the substrate network which fulfills the service specification requirements. This paper(More)
Significant intraindividual variation in the sequence of the 18S rRNA gene is unusual in animal genomes. In a previous study, multiple 18S rRNA gene sequences were observed within individuals of eight species of sturgeon from North America but not in the North American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, in two species of Polypterus (Polypterus delhezi and(More)