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Two forms of DNA base excision-repair (BER) have been observed: a 'short-patch' BER pathway involving replacement of one nucleotide and a 'long-patch' BER pathway with gap-filling of several nucleotides. The latter mode of repair has been investigated using human cell-free extracts or purified proteins. Correction of a regular abasic site in DNA mainly(More)
Although oxidative damage has long been associated with ageing and neurological disease, mechanistic connections of oxidation to these phenotypes have remained elusive. Here we show that the age-dependent somatic mutation associated with Huntington's disease occurs in the process of removing oxidized base lesions, and is remarkably dependent on a single(More)
Base excision repair (BER) is the primary DNA repair pathway that corrects base lesions that arise due to oxidative, alkylation, deamination, and depurinatiation/depyrimidination damage. BER facilitates the repair of damaged DNA via two general pathways - short-patch and long-patch. The shortpatch BER pathway leads to a repair tract of a single nucleotide.(More)
Mutations in the human Kir4.1 potassium channel gene (KCNJ10) are associated with epilepsy. Using a mouse model with glia-specific deletion of Kcnj10, we have explored the mechanistic underpinning of the epilepsy phenotype. The gene deletion was shown to delay K(+) clearance after synaptic activation in stratum radiatum of hippocampal slices. The(More)
DNA damage generated by oxidant byproducts of cellular metabolism has been proposed as a key factor in cancer and aging. Oxygen free radicals cause predominantly base damage in DNA, and the most frequent mutagenic base lesion is 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). This altered base can pair with A as well as C residues, leading to a greatly increased(More)
There are one million molecules of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in mammalian cell nuclei and the enzyme is found in most eukaryotes, with the notable exception of yeasts. In response to DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation or alkylating agents, PARP binds to strand interruptions in DNA and undergoes rapid automodification with synthesis of long(More)
N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent internal modification of messenger RNA (mRNA) in higher eukaryotes. Here we report ALKBH5 as another mammalian demethylase that oxidatively reverses m(6)A in mRNA in vitro and in vivo. This demethylation activity of ALKBH5 significantly affects mRNA export and RNA metabolism as well as the assembly of mRNA(More)
Mitochondria are not only the major site for generation of reactive oxygen species, but also one of the main targets of oxidative damage. One of the major products of DNA oxidation, 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), accumulates in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) at levels three times higher than in nuclear DNA. The main pathway for the repair of 8-oxodG is the base(More)
Hydrolytic deamination of DNA-cytosines into uracils is a major source of spontaneously induced mutations, and at elevated temperatures the rate of cytosine deamination is increased. Uracil lesions are repaired by the base excision repair pathway, which is initiated by a specific uracil DNA glycosylase enzyme (UDG). The hyperthermophilic archaeon(More)
Repair of a uracil-guanine base pair in DNA has been reconstituted with the recombinant human proteins uracil-DNA glycosylase, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, DNA polymerase beta and DNA ligase III. The XRCC1 protein, which is known to bind DNA ligase III, is not absolutely required for the reaction but suppresses strand displacement by DNA polymerase(More)