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Although oxidative damage has long been associated with ageing and neurological disease, mechanistic connections of oxidation to these phenotypes have remained elusive. Here we show that the age-dependent somatic mutation associated with Huntington's disease occurs in the process of removing oxidized base lesions, and is remarkably dependent on a single(More)
Hydrolytic deamination of DNA-cytosines into uracils is a major source of spontaneously induced mutations, and at elevated temperatures the rate of cytosine deamination is increased. Uracil lesions are repaired by the base excision repair pathway, which is initiated by a specific uracil DNA glycosylase enzyme (UDG). The hyperthermophilic archaeon(More)
Mutations in the human Kir4.1 potassium channel gene (KCNJ10) are associated with epilepsy. Using a mouse model with glia-specific deletion of Kcnj10, we have explored the mechanistic underpinning of the epilepsy phenotype. The gene deletion was shown to delay K(+) clearance after synaptic activation in stratum radiatum of hippocampal slices. The(More)
Two human homologs of the Escherichia coli AlkB protein, denoted hABH2 and hABH3, were recently shown to directly reverse 1-methyladenine (1meA) and 3-methylcytosine (3meC) damages in DNA. We demonstrate that mice lacking functional mABH2 or mABH3 genes, or both, are viable and without overt phenotypes. Neither were histopathological changes observed in the(More)
Mutations in solute carrier family 9 isoform 6 on chromosome Xq26.3 encoding sodium-hydrogen exchanger 6, a protein mainly expressed in early and recycling endosomes are known to cause a complex and slowly progressive degenerative human neurological disease. Three resulting phenotypes have so far been reported: an X-linked Angelman syndrome-like condition,(More)
The Escherichia coli AlkB protein (EcAlkB) is a DNA repair enzyme which reverses methylation damage such as 1-methyladenine (1-meA) and 3-methylcytosine (3-meC). The mammalian AlkB homologues ALKBH2 and ALKBH3 display EcAlkB-like repair activity in vitro, but their substrate specificities are different, and ALKBH2 is the main DNA repair enzyme for 1-meA in(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a primary influx route for water during brain edema formation. Here, we provide evidence that brain swelling triggers Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytes and that deletion of the Aqp4 gene markedly interferes with these events. Using in vivo two-photon imaging, we show that hypoosmotic stress (20% reduction in osmolarity) initiates(More)
Tissue- and cell-specific deletion of the Aqp4 gene is required to differentiate between the numerous pools of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels. A glial-conditional Aqp4 knockout mouse line was generated to resolve whether astroglial AQP4 controls water exchange across the blood-brain interface. The conditional knockout was driven by the glial fibrillary(More)
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that can be actively transported within the cell to satisfy local requirements. They are vital for providing cellular energy, but are also an important endogenous source of reactive oxygen species. The distribution of mitochondria is particularly important for neurons because of the morphological complexity of(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansions. We show here that somatic TNR expansions are significantly reduced in several organs of R6/1 mice lacking exon 2 of Nei-like 1 (Neil1) (R6/1/Neil1(-/-)), when compared with R6/1/Neil1(+/+) mice. Somatic TNR expansion is measured by two(More)