Arne Klungland

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Two forms of DNA base excision-repair (BER) have been observed: a 'short-patch' BER pathway involving replacement of one nucleotide and a 'long-patch' BER pathway with gap-filling of several nucleotides. The latter mode of repair has been investigated using human cell-free extracts or purified proteins. Correction of a regular abasic site in DNA mainly(More)
DNA damage generated by oxidant byproducts of cellular metabolism has been proposed as a key factor in cancer and aging. Oxygen free radicals cause predominantly base damage in DNA, and the most frequent mutagenic base lesion is 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). This altered base can pair with A as well as C residues, leading to a greatly increased(More)
Although oxidative damage has long been associated with ageing and neurological disease, mechanistic connections of oxidation to these phenotypes have remained elusive. Here we show that the age-dependent somatic mutation associated with Huntington's disease occurs in the process of removing oxidized base lesions, and is remarkably dependent on a single(More)
Base excision repair (BER) is the primary DNA repair pathway that corrects base lesions that arise due to oxidative, alkylation, deamination, and depurinatiation/depyrimidination damage. BER facilitates the repair of damaged DNA via two general pathways – short-patch and long-patch. The shortpatch BER pathway leads to a repair tract of a single nucleotide.(More)
N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent internal modification of messenger RNA (mRNA) in higher eukaryotes. Here we report ALKBH5 as another mammalian demethylase that oxidatively reverses m(6)A in mRNA in vitro and in vivo. This demethylation activity of ALKBH5 significantly affects mRNA export and RNA metabolism as well as the assembly of mRNA(More)
There are one million molecules of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in mammalian cell nuclei and the enzyme is found in most eukaryotes, with the notable exception of yeasts. In response to DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation or alkylating agents, PARP binds to strand interruptions in DNA and undergoes rapid automodification with synthesis of long(More)
Repair of a uracil-guanine base pair in DNA has been reconstituted with the recombinant human proteins uracil-DNA glycosylase, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, DNA polymerase beta and DNA ligase III. The XRCC1 protein, which is known to bind DNA ligase III, is not absolutely required for the reaction but suppresses strand displacement by DNA polymerase(More)
The major mutagenic base lesion in DNA caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species is 8-hydroxyguanine (8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanine). In bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this damaged base is excised by a DNA glycosylase with an associated lyase activity for chain cleavage. We have cloned, sequenced, and expressed a human cDNA with partial sequence(More)
We adapted UV CLIP (cross-linking immunoprecipitation) to accurately locate tens of thousands of m(6)A residues in mammalian mRNA with single-nucleotide resolution. More than 70% of these residues are present in the 3'-most (last) exons, with a very sharp rise (sixfold) within 150-400 nucleotides of the start of the last exon. Two-thirds of last exon m(6)A(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a primary influx route for water during brain edema formation. Here, we provide evidence that brain swelling triggers Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytes and that deletion of the Aqp4 gene markedly interferes with these events. Using in vivo two-photon imaging, we show that hypoosmotic stress (20% reduction in osmolarity) initiates(More)