Arne Helland

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The purpose of this study was to establish and validate a driving simulator method for assessing drug effects on driving. To achieve this, we used ethanol as a positive control, and examined whether ethanol affects driving performance in the simulator, and whether these effects are consistent with performance during real driving on a test track, also under(More)
In cases of sexual assault, victims often present too late for the detection of ethanol in biological samples. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in urine. Sample preparation prior to UPLC-MS-MS analysis(More)
The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a(More)
Simulator sickness is a major obstacle to the use of driving simulators for research, training and driver assessment purposes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible influence of simulator sickness on driving performance measures such as standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), and the effect of alcohol or repeated simulator(More)
BACKGROUND In some situations, and particularly when intoxications are suspected, it would be advantageous if medicines and drugs of abuse could be swiftly detected in serum or urine. MATERIAL AND METHODS The Department of Clinical Pharmacology at St. Olav University Hospital has since 2004 been developing a comprehensive toxicology service (at all hours(More)
A method including semi-automated extraction of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) from serum followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) has been developed and validated. Sample preparation prior to UHPLC-MS-MS analysis consisted of protein precipitation and filtration through a phospholipid(More)
Compared to morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), codeine and its other major metabolites codeine-6-glucuronide and norcodeine have weak affinity to opioid μ-receptors. Analgesic effects of codeine are thus largely dependent on metabolic conversion to morphine by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2D6 (CYP2D6). How this relates to toxicity and(More)
BACKGROUND Changes in the Norwegian drug reimbursement system in 2008 included the establishment of a new reimbursement code (-71) which authorises coverage of expenditures for potentially addictive drugs in patients with severe, predominantly non-malignant, chronic pain. This reform has hitherto not been evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHOD We assessed(More)
BACKGROUND Combination drugs containing codeine and paracetamol are widely prescribed in Norway. MATERIAL AND METHODS We reviewed relevant literature identified through searches on Medline or found in the reference lists of important articles. RESULTS Codeine mediates its analgesic effect through the active metabolite morphine, a reaction which is(More)