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The resistance reflex in the femur-tibia joint of stick insects shows a great variability in its strength which allows the animal to adapt to different environmental requirements. This paper presents the modulations in the neural reflex pathways which occur during an increase of the gain of the resistance reflex after tactile stimulation. The gain increase(More)
The femur-tibia (FT) joint of insects is governed by a neuronal network that controls activity in tibial motoneurons by processing sensory information about tibial position and movement provided by afferents of the femoral chordotonal organ (fCO). We show that central arborizations of fCO afferents receive presynaptic depolarizing synaptic inputs. With an(More)
In inactive stick insects, sensory information from the femoral chordotonal organ (fCO) about position and movement of the femur-tibia joint is transferred via local nonspiking interneurons onto extensor and flexor tibiae motoneurons. Information is processed by the interaction of antagonistic parallel pathways at two levels: (1) at the input side of the(More)
The complicated response characteristics of the identified nonspiking interneuron type E4 upon elongation stimuli to the femoral chordotonal organ (fCO) can be obtained by a computer simulation using the neuronal network simulator BioSim, if the following assumptions were introduced: (1) The interneurons receive direct excitatory input from position- and(More)
The femoral chordotonal organ in orthopterans signals proprioceptive sensory information concerning the femur-tibia joint to the central nervous system. In the stick insect, 80 out of 500 afferents sense tibial position, velocity, or acceleration. It has been assumed that the other sensory cells in the chordotonal organ would serve as vibration detectors.(More)
The femoral chordotonal organ of stick insects senses position and velocity of movements in the femur-tibia joint, as well as tibial vibration. While sensory information about large-scale tibial movements is processed by a well-known neuronal network and elicits resistance reflexes in extensor and flexor tibiae motoneurons, it is not yet known how sensory(More)
Synthetic sex pheromone of the pea mothCydia nigricana, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (E8,E10–12: Ac), was applied in polyethylene dispensers at a rate of 30 g/ha and 600 dispensers/ha in a 0.6-ha pea field. The release rate ofE8,E10–12: Ac was 140 mg/ha/day after six days, and 82 mg/ha/day after 20 days. Aerial concentrations ofE8,E10–12: Ac, as(More)
The spatial distribution of the pheromone of the grape vine moth.Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was measured in vineyards treated for mating disruption by using an electroantennogram technique (EAG). Five hundred dispensers per hectare, each containing 0.1 g of the main component of the sex pheromone (E,Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate (E7,Z9-12:(More)
The influence of vibratory signals from the femoral chordotonal organ fCO on the activities of muscles and motoneurons in the three main leg joints of the stick insect leg, i.e., the thoraco-coxal (TC) joint, the coxa-trochanteral (CT) joint, and the femur-tibia (FT) joint, was investigated when the animal was in the active behavioral state. Vibration(More)
Real pattern-generating networks often consist of more neurons than necessary for the production of a certain rhythm. We investigated the question of whether these neurons contribute to the robustness of a pattern-generating system of using the central pattern generator (CPG) for flight of the locust, generating the deafferented activity pattern of wing(More)