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Mammalian retinae express multiple connexins that mediate the metabolic and electrical coupling of various cell types. In retinal neurons, only connexin 36, connexin 45, connexin 50, and connexin 57 have been described so far. Here, we present an analysis of a novel retinal connexin, connexin 30.2 (Cx30.2), and its regulation in the mouse retina. To analyze(More)
In vertebrate retinas, wide-field amacrine cells represent a diverse class of interneurons, important for the extraction of selective features, like motion or objects, from the visual scene. Most types of wide-field amacrine cells lack dedicated output processes, whereas some types spatially segregate outputs from inputs. In the tyrosine hydroxylase(More)
The present paper reports that the synaptic bodies of the retinal ribbon synapses in rat, guinea pig, golden hamster and mouse are a heterogeneous population of organelles. In addition to the well-known synaptic ribbons sensu stricto which consist of a platelike electron-dense central structure surrounded by electron-lucent synaptic vesicles, there are what(More)
The interactions of microtubules with most compounds described as stabilizing agents have been studied. Several of them (lonafarnib, dicumarol, lutein, and jatrophane polyesters) did not show any stabilizing effect on microtubules. Taccalonolides A and E show paclitaxel-like effects in cells, but they were not able to modulate in vitro tubulin assembly or(More)
We report a full account of our work toward the total synthesis of pseudolaric acid B (1a), a diterpene acid isolated from the bark of Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon (pinaceae). Compound 1a is an antifungal and antifertility agent. Furthermore, its capacity for inhibiting tubulin polymerization makes it a potential lead for cancer therapy. Herein, we describe(More)
Amacrine cells comprise ∼ 30 morphological types in the mammalian retina. The synaptic connectivity and function of a few γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic wide-field amacrine cells have recently been studied; however, with the exception of the rod pathway-specific AII amacrine cell, the connectivity of glycinergic small-field amacrine cells has not been(More)
Electrical synapses (gap junctions) rapidly transmit signals between neurons and are composed of connexins. In neurons, connexin36 (Cx36) is the most abundant isoform; however, the mechanisms underlying formation of Cx36-containing electrical synapses are unknown. We focus on homocellular and heterocellular gap junctions formed by an AII amacrine cell, a(More)
[structure: see text] A highly stereocontrolled total synthesis of the cytotoxic macrolide (-)-callipeltoside A has been achieved in 23 steps (4.8% overall). Notable features include a novel asymmetric vinylogous aldol reaction to install the C13 stereocenter and (E)-trisubstituted alkene, an anti-selective aldol addition, a Sonogashira coupling, and, last,(More)
Electrical coupling via gap junctions is an abundant phenomenon in the mammalian retina and occurs in all major cell types. Gap junction channels are assembled from different connexin subunits, and the connexin composition of the channel confers specific properties to the electrical synapse. In the mouse retina, gap junctions were demonstrated between(More)
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