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Fundamental processes influencing human growth can be revealed by studying extreme short stature. Using genetic linkage analysis, we find that biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the centrosomal pericentrin (PCNT) gene on chromosome 21q22.3 cause microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) in 25 patients. Adults with this rare(More)
Cerebral processing of itch-scratching cycles was studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy volunteers. The back of the hand was repetitively scratched in the absence and presence of itch induced by histamine applied close to the scratched site. Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) effects were assessed in predefined cortical(More)
The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the major genetic risk factor for the development of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), whereas the presence of the APOE ε2 allele seems to confer protection. Here, we report that healthy young APOE ε4 carriers have statistically significantly smaller hippocampal volumes than APOE ε2 carriers, while no differences(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To study whether computed tomography (CT) can measure the water content of early ischemic edema. METHODS The authors obtained cranial CT in 5 groups of rats subjected to 1 hour (n = 8), 2 hours (n = 11), 3 hours (n = 13), 4 hours (n = 13), or 6 hours (n = 14) of right middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Immediately after CT, the(More)
Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PCSE) is a widely used model to study neurodegeneration in limbic structures after prolonged epileptic seizures. However, mechanisms mediating neuronal cell death in this model require further characterization. Examining the expression time course and spatial distribution of activated caspase-3, we sought to determine(More)
The insula plays a key role in brain processing of noxious and innocuous thermal stimuli. The anterior and the posterior portions of the insular cortex are involved in different ways in nociceptive and thermoceptive processing. Therefore, their stimulus-specific functional connectivity may also differ. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Both hypothermia and decompressive craniectomy (DC) have been shown to reduce ischemic injury in experimental middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of combined DC and hypothermia on infarction size and neurological outcome in a rat model of MCA occlusion (MCAO). METHODS MCAO was(More)
PURPOSE This study aims to investigate the contributions of magnetoencephalography (MEG) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative patients. METHODS A total of 18 MRI-negative patients diagnosed with refractory epilepsy, subjected to MEG investigation, and subsequently underwent surgery were selected for retrospective analysis. A 1.5-tesla Magnetom(More)
The sellar and parasellar region is an anatomically complex area where a number of neoplastic, infectious, inflammatory, developmental and vascular pathologies can occur. Differentiation among various etiologies may not always be easy, since many of these lesions may mimic the clinical, endocrinologic and radiologic presentations of pituitary adenomas. The(More)
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human brain. It plays a decisive role in a variety of nervous system disorders, such as anxiety disorders, epilepsy, schizophrenia, insomnia, and many others. The reproducibility of GABA quantification results obtained with a single-voxel spectroscopy J-difference editing(More)