Arnav Agarwal

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BACKGROUND Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and(More)
BACKGROUND Prevalence of allergic diseases in infants, whose parents and siblings do not have allergy, is approximately 10% and reaches 20-30% in those with an allergic first-degree relative. Intestinal microbiota may modulate immunologic and inflammatory systemic responses and, thus, influence development of sensitization and allergy. Probiotics have been(More)
BACKGROUND In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). METHODS We(More)
OBJECTIVE A systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the impact of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and/or electronic non-nicotine delivery systems (ENNDS) versus no smoking cessation aid, or alternative smoking cessation aids, in cigarette smokers on long-term tobacco use. DATA SOURCES Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL,(More)
INTRODUCTION Chronic neuropathic pain is associated with reduced health-related quality of life and substantial socioeconomic costs. Current research addressing management of chronic neuropathic pain is limited. No review has evaluated all interventional studies for chronic neuropathic pain, which limits attempts to make inferences regarding the relative(More)
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized trials that include patient-reported outcomes (PROs) often provide crucial information for patients and clinicians facing challenging health care decisions. Based on emerging methods, guidance on combining PROs in meta-analysis is likely to enhance their usefulness.The objectives of this paper are: i) to(More)
IMPORTANCE It is unclear how medical journals address authors' financial and non-financial conflict of interest (COI). OBJECTIVE To assess the policies of clinical journals for disclosure of financial and non-financial COI. METHODS Cross sectional study that included both review of public documents as well as a simulation of a manuscript submission for(More)
BACKGROUND Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in the peri-operative period involves a trade-off between reduction in venous thromboembolism (VTE) and an increase in bleeding. Baseline risks, in the absence of prophylaxis, for VTE and bleeding are known to vary widely between urological procedures, but their magnitude is highly uncertain. Systematic reviews(More)
Since the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics have been described, the effect of probiotic supplementation has been investigated in several trials and it has been also proposed as a preventive intervention for the development of allergic diseases. Recently two important evidence-based recommendations about the use of probiotics in the prevention of(More)
BACKGROUND Activity-based funding (ABF) of hospitals is a policy intervention intended to re-shape incentives across health systems through the use of diagnosis-related groups. Many countries are adopting or actively promoting ABF. We assessed the effect of ABF on key measures potentially affecting patients and health care systems: mortality (acute and(More)