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Although animals display a rich variety of shapes and patterns, the genetic changes that explain how complex forms arise are still unclear. Here we take advantage of the extensive diversity of Heliconius butterflies to identify a gene that causes adaptive variation of black wing patterns within and between species. Linkage mapping in two species groups,(More)
The evolutionary importance of hybridization and introgression has long been debated. Hybrids are usually rare and unfit, but even infrequent hybridization can aid adaptation by transferring beneficial traits between species. Here we use genomic tools to investigate introgression in Heliconius, a rapidly radiating genus of neotropical butterflies widely(More)
Mimicry--whereby warning signals in different species evolve to look similar--has long served as a paradigm of convergent evolution. Little is known, however, about the genes that underlie the evolution of mimetic phenotypes or to what extent the same or different genes drive such convergence. Here, we characterize one of the major genes responsible for(More)
In the belief function theory, the concept of conflict appearing while confronting several expertspsila opinions can serve for many purposes, and in particular it can be used as an indicator of the relative reliability of the experts. The traditional definition of conflict as the basic belief assigned to the empty set during the combination has several(More)
We present and discuss a mixed conjunctive and disjunctive rule, a generalization of conflict repartition rules, and a combination of these two rules. In the belief functions theory one of the major problem is the conflict repartition enlightened by the famous Zadeh's example. To date, many combination rules have been proposed in order to solve a solution(More)
Distances between fusion operators are measured using a class of random belief functions. With similarity analysis, the structure of this family is extracted, for two and three information sources. The conjunctive operator, quick and associative but very isolated on a large discernment space, and the arithmetic mean are identified as outliers, while the(More)
Each year, numerous segmentation and classification algorithms are invented or reused to solve problems where machine vision is needed. Generally, the efficiency of these algorithms is compared against the results given by one or many human experts. However, in many situations, the location of the real boundaries of the object as well as their classes are(More)
Every speech recognition system contains a speech/non-speech detection stage. Detected speech sequences are only passed through the speech recognition stage later on. In a very noisy environment, the noise detection stage is generally responsible for most of the recognition errors. Indeed, many detected noisy periods can be recognized as a vocabulary word.(More)
BACKGROUND The development of the secondary palate has been a main topic in craniofacial research, as its failure results in cleft palate, one of the most common birth defects in human. Nevertheless, palatal rugae (or rugae palatinae), which are transversal ridges developing on the secondary palate, received little attention. However, rugae could be useful(More)