Arnaud Martin

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What is the nature of the genetic changes underlying phenotypic evolution? We have catalogued 1008 alleles described in the literature that cause phenotypic differences among animals, plants, and yeasts. Surprisingly, evolution of similar traits in distinct lineages often involves mutations in the same gene ("gene reuse"). This compilation yields three(More)
Mimicry--whereby warning signals in different species evolve to look similar--has long served as a paradigm of convergent evolution. Little is known, however, about the genes that underlie the evolution of mimetic phenotypes or to what extent the same or different genes drive such convergence. Here, we characterize one of the major genes responsible for(More)
In the belief function theory, the concept of conflict appearing while confronting several expertspsila opinions can serve for many purposes, and in particular it can be used as an indicator of the relative reliability of the experts. The traditional definition of conflict as the basic belief assigned to the empty set during the combination has several(More)
We have characterised the expression of four genes coding for Forkhead box-containing (‘Fox’) transcription factors identified from the hydrozoan (Leptomedusa) Clytia hemisphaerica. Phylogenetic analyses including all available non-bilaterian Fox sequences placed these genes in subfamilies B, Q2 (two genes) and O, and indicated that at least 17 Fox(More)
Although animals display a rich variety of shapes and patterns, the genetic changes that explain how complex forms arise are still unclear. Here we take advantage of the extensive diversity of Heliconius butterflies to identify a gene that causes adaptive variation of black wing patterns within and between species. Linkage mapping in two species groups,(More)
The development of the secondary palate has been a main topic in craniofacial research, as its failure results in cleft palate, one of the most common birth defects in human. Nevertheless, palatal rugae (or rugae palatinae), which are transversal ridges developing on the secondary palate, received little attention. However, rugae could be useful as(More)
In speech recognition, a speech/non-speech detection must be robust to noise. In this work, a new method for speech/nonspeech detection using a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) applied to Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC) is presented. The energy is the most discriminant parameter between noise and speech. But with this single parameter, the(More)
In this chapter, we present and discuss a new generalized proportional conflict redistribution rule. The Dezert-Smarandache extension of the DempsterShafer theory has relaunched the studies on the combination rules especially for the management of the conflict. Many combination rules have been proposed in the last few years. We study here different(More)
Convergent evolution provides a rare, natural experiment with which to test the predictability of adaptation at the molecular level. Little is known about the molecular basis of convergence over macro-evolutionary timescales. Here we use a combination of positional cloning, population genomic resequencing, association mapping and developmental data to(More)