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The development of the secondary palate has been a main topic in craniofacial research, as its failure results in cleft palate, one of the most common birth defects in human. Nevertheless, palatal rugae (or rugae palatinae), which are transversal ridges developing on the secondary palate, received little attention. However, rugae could be useful as(More)
What is the nature of the genetic changes underlying phenotypic evolution? We have catalogued 1008 alleles described in the literature that cause phenotypic differences among animals, plants, and yeasts. Surprisingly, evolution of similar traits in distinct lineages often involves mutations in the same gene ("gene reuse"). This compilation yields three(More)
Although animals display a rich variety of shapes and patterns, the genetic changes that explain how complex forms arise are still unclear. Here we take advantage of the extensive diversity of Heliconius butterflies to identify a gene that causes adaptive variation of black wing patterns within and between species. Linkage mapping in two species groups,(More)
In the belief function theory, the concept of conflict appearing while confronting several expertspsila opinions can serve for many purposes, and in particular it can be used as an indicator of the relative reliability of the experts. The traditional definition of conflict as the basic belief assigned to the empty set during the combination has several(More)
Mimicry--whereby warning signals in different species evolve to look similar--has long served as a paradigm of convergent evolution. Little is known, however, about the genes that underlie the evolution of mimetic phenotypes or to what extent the same or different genes drive such convergence. Here, we characterize one of the major genes responsible for(More)
Butterfly wing patterns have long been a favorite system for studying the evolutionary radiation of complex morphologies. One of the key characteristics of the system is that wing patterns are based on a highly conserved ground plan of pattern homologies. In fact, the evolution of lepidopteran wing patterns is proposed to have occurred through the repeated(More)
Distances between fusion operators are measured using a class of random belief functions. With similarity analysis, the structure of this family is extracted, for two and three information sources. The conjunctive operator, quick and associative but very isolated on a large discernment space, and the arithmetic mean are identified as outliers, while the(More)
Median clustering is of great value for partitioning relational data. In this paper, a new prototype-based clustering method, called Median Evidential C-Means (MECM), which is an extension of median c-means and median fuzzy c-means on the theoretical framework of belief functions is proposed. The median variant relaxes the restriction of a metric space(More)
Convergent evolution provides a rare, natural experiment with which to test the predictability of adaptation at the molecular level. Little is known about the molecular basis of convergence over macro-evolutionary timescales. Here we use a combination of positional cloning, population genomic resequencing, association mapping and developmental data to(More)
Each year, numerous segmentation and classification algorithms are invented or reused to solve problems where machine vision is needed. Generally, the efficiency of these algorithms is compared against the results given by one or many human experts. However, in many situations, the location of the real boundaries of the object as well as their classes are(More)