Learn More
BACKGROUND & AIMS Barrier functions across epithelia and endothelia are essential for homeostatic tissue regulation. Astroglia interact with cerebral endothelia to maintain the blood-brain barrier. Whether similar interactions between astrocyte-like enteric glia and epithelia regulate intestinal barrier function is not known. METHODS Fluorescent(More)
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are lifelong diseases seen predominantly in the developed countries of the world. Whereas ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition causing diffuse and continuous mucosal inflammation of the colon, Crohn's disease is a heterogeneous entity comprised of several different phenotypes, but can affect the(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Rho proteins are involved in the regulation of several cellular functions. Data from in vitro studies suggest that RhoA could be involved in the inflammatory response. We investigated the role of RhoA and its downstream effector Rho kinase in intestinal inflammation. METHODS Activation of RhoA was assessed by pull-down assays. A specific(More)
Recent studies have shown that the human fecal microbiota is composed of a consortium of species specific to the host and resistant to modifications over time. Antibiotics are known to affect the intestinal microflora, and ensuing changes may result in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It is therefore important to characterize the nature and amplitude of(More)
BACKGROUND Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) can identify small bowel mucosal lesions not seen with other imaging modalities. This technique can therefore play an important diagnostic role in the evaluation of patients with inflammatory bowel disease type unclassified (IBDU). We report on a multicentric study whose objective was to evaluate the value of WCE(More)
BACKGROUND Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy enables microscopic examination of the digestive mucosa. AIMS (1) To identify and validate quantitative endomicroscopic criteria for evaluation of the colonic mucosa and (2) to compare these criteria between healthy and Crohn's disease patients in clinical remission. METHODS Six healthy controls and(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic yeast that has been shown to have beneficial effects on the intestinal epithelial barrier and digestive immune system. There is preliminary evidence that S boulardii could be used to treat patients with Crohn's disease (CD). We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects(More)
Interleukin (IL)-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ are expressed highly in skin and are involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, while the antagonists IL-36Ra or IL-38, another potential IL-36 inhibitor, limit uncontrolled inflammation. The expression and role of IL-36 cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease (CD) is currently debated. Here, we(More)
BACKGROUND/AIM Proinflammatory cytokines are key factors in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). Activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB), which is involved in their gene transcription, is increased in the intestinal mucosa of CD patients. As butyrate enemas may be beneficial in treating colonic inflammation, we investigated if butyrate promotes(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of short-term infliximab combined with azathioprine (AZA) or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) in steroid-dependent Crohn's disease patients. METHODS Patients with active disease despite prednisone given for more than 6 months were eligible and were stratified as follows: the failure stratum(More)