Arnab Ghoshal

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We describe the design of Kaldi, a free, open-source toolkit for speech recognition research. Kaldi provides a speech recognition system based on finite-state transducers (using the freely available OpenFst), together with detailed documentation and scripts for building complete recognition systems. Kaldi is written is C++, and the core library supports(More)
Sequence-discriminative training of deep neural networks (DNNs) is investigated on a 300 hour American English conversational telephone speech task. Different sequencediscriminative criteria — maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum phone error (MPE), state-level minimum Bayes risk (sMBR), and boosted MMI — are compared. Two different heuristics are(More)
We describe a new approach to speech recognition, in which all Hidden Markov Model (HMM) states share the same Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) structure with the same number of Gaussians in each state. The model is defined by vectors associated with each state with a dimension of, say, 50, together with a global mapping from this vector space to the space of(More)
We describe an acoustic modeling approach in which all phonetic states share a common Gaussian Mixture Model structure, and the means and mixture weights vary in a subspace of the total parameter space. We call this a Subspace Gaussian Mixture Model (SGMM). Globally shared parameters define the subspace. This style of acoustic model allows for a much more(More)
Although research has previously been done on multilingual speech recognition, it has been found to be very difficult to improve over separately trained systems. The usual approach has been to use some kind of “universal phone set” that covers multiple languages. We report experiments on a different approach to multilingual speech recognition,(More)
We investigate the use of cross-lingual acoustic data to initialise deep neural network (DNN) acoustic models by means of unsupervised restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) pretraining. DNNs for German are pretrained using one or all of German, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish. The DNNs are used in a tandem configuration, where the network outputs are used as(More)
We investigate convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for large vocabulary distant speech recognition, trained using speech recorded from a single distant microphone (SDM) and multiple distant microphones (MDM). In the MDM case we explore a beamformed signal input representation compared with the direct use of multiple acoustic channels as a parallel input to(More)
This paper introduces a novel method for automatic annotation of images with keywords from a generic vocabulary of <i>concepts</i> or objects for the purpose of content-based image retrieval. An image, represented as sequence of feature-vectors characterizing low-level visual features such as color, texture or oriented-edges, is modeled as having been(More)
We investigate multilingual modeling in the context of a deep neural network (DNN) - hidden Markov model (HMM) hybrid, where the DNN outputs are used as the HMM state likelihoods. By viewing neural networks as a cascade of feature extractors followed by a logistic regression classifier, we hypothesise that the hidden layers, which act as feature extractors,(More)
We describe a lattice generation method that is exact, i.e. it satisfies all the natural properties we would want from a lattice of alternative transcriptions of an utterance. This method does not introduce substantial overhead above one-best decoding. Our method is most directly applicable when using WFST decoders where the WFST is &#x201C;fully(More)