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Vitamin D is metabolised by a hepatic 25-hydroxylase into 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and by a renal 1alpha-hydroxylase into the vitamin D hormone calcitriol. Calcitriol receptors are present in more than thirty different tissues. Apart from the kidney, several tissues also possess the enzyme 1alpha-hydroxylase, which is able to use circulating 25(OH)D as(More)
The report by Hyppönen and Power in this issue of the Journal (1) highlights a frustrating and regrettable situation for nutrition researchers. In the early 1970s, the same serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations reported by Hyp-pönen and Power were thought to be indicative of " healthy " white adults in the United Kingdom (2). However, during(More)
BACKGROUND Elevated circulating concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines may contribute to the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF). In vitro studies suggest that vitamin D suppresses proinflammatory cytokines and increases antiinflammatory cytokines. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the survival rate and(More)
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent due to lifestyle and environmental factors which limit sunlight induced vitamin D production in the skin. This "pandemic" of vitamin D deficiency is of concern because low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) have been associated with cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, infectious, autoimmune and malignant diseases.(More)
The aetiology of CVD is still not completely understood. The present review article summarises data supporting the hypothesis that an insufficient vitamin D status may contribute to the worldwide high prevalence of CVD. Human vitamin D status primarily depends on skin exposure to the UVB spectrum of the sunlight. Epidemiological data indicate that(More)
BACKGROUND Uptake of self-testing and self-management of oral anticoagulation [corrected] has remained inconsistent, despite good evidence of their effectiveness. To clarify the value of self-monitoring of oral anticoagulation, we did a meta-analysis of individual patient data addressing several important gaps in the evidence, including an estimate of the(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated whether macronutrient composition of energy-restricted diets influences the efficacy of a telemedically guided weight loss program. METHODS Two hundred overweight subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet group (target carbohydrate content: >55% energy and <40% energy,(More)