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Vitamin D is metabolised by a hepatic 25-hydroxylase into 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and by a renal 1alpha-hydroxylase into the vitamin D hormone calcitriol. Calcitriol receptors are present in more than thirty different tissues. Apart from the kidney, several tissues also possess the enzyme 1alpha-hydroxylase, which is able to use circulating 25(OH)D as(More)
BACKGROUND Elevated circulating concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines may contribute to the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF). In vitro studies suggest that vitamin D suppresses proinflammatory cytokines and increases antiinflammatory cytokines. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the survival rate and(More)
Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is the hallmark for determining vitamin D status. Serum parathyroid hormone [PTH] increases progressively when 25(OH)D falls below 75 nmol/l. Concentrations of 25(OH)D below 50 nmol/l or even below 25 nmol/l are frequently observed in various population groups throughout the world. This paper highlights the(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence is accumulating that vitamin D supplementation of patients with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations is associated with lower cardiovascular morbidity and total mortality during long-term follow-up. Little is known, however, about the effect of low concentrations of the vitamin D hormone calcitriol on total mortality. We therefore(More)
The report by Hyppönen and Power in this issue of the Journal (1) highlights a frustrating and regrettable situation for nutrition researchers. In the early 1970s, the same serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations reported by Hyp-pönen and Power were thought to be indicative of " healthy " white adults in the United Kingdom (2). However, during(More)
The aetiology of CVD is still not completely understood. The present review article summarises data supporting the hypothesis that an insufficient vitamin D status may contribute to the worldwide high prevalence of CVD. Human vitamin D status primarily depends on skin exposure to the UVB spectrum of the sunlight. Epidemiological data indicate that(More)
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent due to lifestyle and environmental factors which limit sunlight induced vitamin D production in the skin. This "pandemic" of vitamin D deficiency is of concern because low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) have been associated with cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, infectious, autoimmune and malignant diseases.(More)
BACKGROUND Convulsive seizures (CS) occur in ∼1% of the patients after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Recent investigations indicate an up to seven-fold increase in CS in cardiac surgical patients receiving high doses (≥60 mg kg(-1) body weight) of tranexamic acid (TA). METHODS In a retrospective data analysis of 4883 cardiac surgical(More)
BACKGROUND Uptake of self-testing and self-management of oral anticoagulation [corrected] has remained inconsistent, despite good evidence of their effectiveness. To clarify the value of self-monitoring of oral anticoagulation, we did a meta-analysis of individual patient data addressing several important gaps in the evidence, including an estimate of the(More)
It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high(More)