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Since Kraepelin's first description of dementia praecox in 1889 many data and theories have been published on the onset and course of schizophrenia. Until now studies on these topics had to rely on first admission data and on the subsequent course of the disease. However, first hospitalisation is preceded by a wide variety of patterns and duration of the(More)
CONTEXT In 2002, an estimated 877,000 lives were lost worldwide through suicide. Some developed nations have implemented national suicide prevention plans. Although these plans generally propose multiple interventions, their effectiveness is rarely evaluated. OBJECTIVES To examine evidence for the effectiveness of specific suicide-preventive interventions(More)
The World Health Organization/EURO Multicentre Project on Parasuicide is part of the action to implement target 12 of the WHO programme, "Health for All by the Year 2000', for the European region. Sixteen centres in 13 European countries are participating in the monitoring aspect of the project, in which trends in the epidemiology of suicide attempts are(More)
In both its original and German version, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression-Rating Scale (MADRS) has proved to be efficient and practical, and the level of its interrater reliability would appear to be satisfactorily high. With regard to the detection of changes occurring during the course of a depressive phase, this scale exhibits a degree of sensitivity(More)
In this study it was possible to prove the Werther effect in suicides after watching fictional models for the first time. A twice-broadcast (1981, 1982) six-episode weekly serial showing the railway suicide of a 19-year-old male student provided a quasi-experimental ABABA design to investigate differential effects of suicide imitation. Imitation effects(More)
Between 1976-84 there were 6090 suicides and 391 attempted suicides on railways in the Federal Republic of Germany. This suicide method was compared to other methods with respect to seasonal and daily distributions and fluctuations by time of day for age and sex. The ratio of males to females was 2.54:1 and the relative incidence of this type of suicide as(More)
The WHO/EURO multicentre study on parasuicide is a new, coordinated, multinational, European study that covers two broad areas of research: monitoring trends in the epidemiology of parasuicide (epidemiological monitoring study); and follow-up investigations of parasuicide populations, with a view to identifying the social and personal characteristics(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors present an analysis of findings for the 65 years and over age group from the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study of Suicidal Behaviour (1989-93). METHODS Multinational data on non-fatal suicidal behaviour is derived from 1518 subjects in 16 European centres. Local district data on suicide were available from 10 of the collaborating centres.(More)
The aim of this study was to assess any predictive factors for repeated attempted suicide and completed suicide in a 1-year follow-up on a sample of elderly European suicide attempters (60 years and over). From 1990 to 1993, 63 subjects completed the first interview and were recontacted after 1 year. At follow-up, eight subjects (12.7%) had taken their(More)
In many European countries, suicidal behavior constitutes a major public and mental health problem. In most countries, the number of suicides is significantly higher than the number of deaths due to traffic accidents. According to official figures, the suicide rates among European countries differ widely; for example, Hungary has the highest rates. Suicide(More)