Armin R Ofial

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Equilibria for the reactions of benzhydryl cations (Ar2CH(+)) with phosphines, tert-amines, pyridines, and related Lewis bases were determined photometrically in CH2Cl2 and CH3CN solution at 20 °C. The measured equilibrium constants can be expressed by the sum of two parameters, defined as the Lewis Acidity (LA) of the benzhydrylium ions and the Lewis(More)
Iron-catalyzed oxidative α-cyanations at tertiary allylamines in the allylic position are followed by anti-Markovnikov additions of alcohols across the vinylic CC double bonds of the initially generated α-amino nitriles. These consecutive reactions generate 2-amino-4-alkoxybutanenitriles from three reactants (allylamines, trimethylsilyl cyanide, and(More)
Twenty-three diarylcarbenium ions and 38 pi-systems (arenes, alkenes, allyl silanes and stannanes, silyl enol ethers, silyl ketene acetals, and enamines) have been defined as basis sets for establishing general reactivity scales for electrophiles and nucleophiles. The rate constants of 209 combinations of these benzhydrylium ions and pi-nucleophiles, 85 of(More)
Which electrophiles react with which nucleophiles? The correlation log k(20 degrees Celsius) = s(E + N), in which electrophiles (carbocations, metal-pi-complexes, diazonium ions) are characterized by one (E) and nucleophiles are characterized by two parameters (N, s), proved to be applicable for a wide variety of electrophile-nucleophile combinations. Since(More)
The kinetics of the coupling of indole (1a), N-methylindole (1b), 5-methoxyindole (1c), and 5-cyanoindole (1d) with a set of reference benzhydryl cations have been investigated in acetonitrile and/or dichloromethane. The second-order rate constants for the reactions correlate linearly with the electrophilicity parameter E of the benzhydryl cations. This(More)
The key steps in most organocatalytic cyclizations are the reactions of electrophiles with nucleophiles. Their rates can be calculated by the linear free-energy relationship log k(20 °C) = s(N)(E + N), where electrophiles are characterized by one parameter (E) and nucleophiles are characterized by the solvent-dependent nucleophilicity (N) and sensitivity(More)
The concept of hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) proved to be useful for rationalizing stability constants of metal complexes. Its application to organic reactions, particularly ambident reactivity, has led to exotic blossoms. By attempting to rationalize all the observed regioselectivities by favorable soft-soft and hard-hard as well as unfavorable(More)
The reactivity-selectivity principle (RSP), once a tenet of organic chemistry, eroded during the 1970s and was more or less abandoned by 1980. Although it has been clear for more than 25 years that a decrease in selectivity with increasing reactivity can only be expected with certainty if diffusion control is approached, the RSP has survived as an(More)
The correlation equation log k(25 degrees C) = sf(Nf + Ef), where sf and Nf are nucleofuge-specific parameters referring to leaving group/solvent combinations and Ef are electrofuge-specific parameters referring to the incipient carbocation R+, are used to predict ionization rate constants of alkyl derivatives R--X. We show how to employ the Ef parameters(More)
A series of 21 benzhydrylium ions (diarylmethylium ions) are proposed as reference electrofuges for the development of a general nucleofugality scale, where nucleofugality refers to a combination of leaving group and solvent. A total of 167 solvolysis rate constants of benzhydrylium tosylates, bromides, chlorides, trifluoroacetates, 3,5-dinitrobenzoates,(More)