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The prion protein (PrP(C)) is a copper-binding protein of unknown function that plays an important role in the etiology of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Using morphological techniques and synaptosomal fractionation methods, we show that PrP(C) is predominantly localized to synaptic membranes. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to identify(More)
Extracellular α-Synuclein has been implicated in interneuronal propagation of disease pathology in Parkinson's Disease. How α-Synuclein is released into the extracellular space is still unclear. Here, we show that α-Synuclein is present in extracellular vesicles in the central nervous system. We find that sorting of α-Synuclein in extracellular vesicles is(More)
The α-synuclein gene (SNCA) plays a major role in the aetiology of Lewy body disease (LBD) including Parkinson's disease (PD). Point mutations and genetic alterations causing elevated gene expression are causally linked to familial PD. To what extent epigenetic changes play a role in the regulation of α-synuclein expression and may contribute to the(More)
Aggregation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) has been linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that prefibrillar oligomers and protofibrils, rather than mature fibrils of alpha-syn, are the pathogenic species in PD. Despite extensive effort on studying oligomerization of(More)
To elucidate the role played by the prion protein in scrapie pathogenesis, we performed experiments with PrP27-30 isolated from scrapie-infected hamster brains in cell culture and studied in vivo the temporal and spatial correlation between deposition of the disease-associated isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc), microglial activation and neuronal cell(More)
Neuronal loss is a salient yet poorly understood feature in the pathology of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases). Cell culture experiments with neurotoxic prion protein fragments suggest that neuronal cell death in these diseases may be due to apoptosis. To test this hypothesis in vivo we used the in situ end-labeling (ISEL) technique(More)
Recent evidence indicates that protein aggregation and in particular the formation of toxic protein oligomers is a key mechanism in synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Post mortem brain tissue studies as well as animal studies furthermore suggest that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are also involved in the pathogenesis of PD. We used(More)
Aggregated α-synuclein (α-syn) is a characteristic pathological finding in Parkinson's disease and related disorders, such as dementia with Lewy bodies. Recent evidence suggests that α-syn oligomers represent the principal neurotoxic species; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms are still not well understood. Here, we studied the neurophysiological(More)
The prion protein (PrPC) is a copper-binding, cell-surface protein that plays an essential role in the etiology of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Atomic absorption spectroscopy studies have established that synaptosomal copper content is reduced in PrPC-deficient mice as compared with wild-type (WT) or PrP- overexpressing mice. To address the(More)
Six subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with distinctive clinico-pathological features have been identified largely based on two types of the abnormal prion protein, PrP(Sc), and the methionine (M)/valine (V) polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein. The existence of affected subjects showing mixed phenotypic features and concurrent PrP(Sc)(More)