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We investigated the expression pattern of the breast cancer associated gene LIV-1 on mRNA and protein level in 111 human breast cancer patients by in situ hybridization as well as immunohistochemistry and focused on the unknown potential of LIV-1 expression levels as a prognostic marker. To our knowledge, this is the first study on endogenous LIV-1 protein(More)
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) B-cell lymphomas develop in the context of autoimmune or chronic inflammations like Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. Remission of most gastric MALT lymphomas after eradication of H pylori links tumor cell proliferation to antigen-induced inflammation and the need for antigenic contact. Furthermore, the tumor(More)
Peptide arrays prepared by the SPOT synthesis technology have emerged as a proteomic tool to study molecular recognition and identify biologically active peptides. However, it was previously not clear how accurately signal intensities obtained by probing peptide arrays for protein binding really reflect the dissociation constants of the protein-peptide(More)
Optimization of antibody affinity is a hallmark of the humoral immune response. It takes place in hundreds of transient microstructures called germinal centers (GCs). Their function and time-dependent behavior are subjects of active investigation. According to a generally accepted notion, their individual kinetics follows the average kinetics of all GCs(More)
Germinal centers (GCs) are complex, multicell-type, transient structures that form in secondary lymphatic tissues in response to T cell-dependent stimulation. This process is crucial to the adaptive immune response because it is the source of affinity maturation and long-lived B cell memory. Our previous studies showed that the growth of murine splenic GCs(More)
Little about the reliability of measurements obtained using synthetic peptide microarrays is known. We report results from a study on the quantitative reliability of microarrays manufactured by robot-supported immobilization of presynthesized peptides for different microarray platforms. Technological precision is assessed for inter- and intra-device readout(More)
Affinity maturation of B lymphocytes within germinal centers involves both diversification of their B-cell receptors (BCRs) by somatic hypermutation (SHM) and a crucial receptor-mediated selection step. However, in contrast to recent advances in revealing the molecular mechanism of SHM, the fundamentals of the selection process are still poorly understood,(More)
The Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany in 2011 required the development of appropriate tools in real-time for tracing suspicious foods along the supply chain, namely salad ingredients, sprouts, and seeds. Food commodities consumed at locations identified as most probable site of infection (outbreak clusters) were traced back(More)
Immunization with a T cell-dependent Ag leads to the formation of several hundred germinal centers (GCs) within secondary lymphoid organs, a key process in the maturation of the immune response. Although prevailing perceptions about affinity maturation intuitively assume simultaneous seeding, growth, and decay of GCs, our previous mathematical simulations(More)