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Odors in the headspace of apple trees were characterized by in situ volatile collections in the orchard. Sixty-two compounds were quantitatively identified with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry over the complete fruit-growing season. Overall quantities in the headspace of fruit-bearing twig were highest at petal fall and at the(More)
Headspace volatiles from apple-bearing twigs were collected in the field with a Radiello sampler during three different diurnal periods over the complete fruit growing season. Analyses by thermal desorption-GC-MS identified a total of 62 compounds in changing quantities, including the terpenoids alpha-pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, limonene,(More)
A number of plant endogenous elicitors have been identified that induce pattern-triggered immunity upon perception. In Arabidopsis thaliana eight small precursor proteins, called PROPEPs, are thought to be cleaved upon danger to release eight peptides known as the plant elicitor peptides Peps. As the expression of some PROPEPs is induced upon biotic stress(More)
Two cyclic peptides, scytonemides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the cultured fresh water cyanobacterium Scytonema hofmannii (UTEX 1834) by bioassay-guided fractionation using a proteasome inhibition assay. The planar structures of the compounds were determined by a combination of MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The advanced Marfey's method was used(More)
Phytohormones are low molecular weight compounds that are produced by plants to regulate growth and development and also in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The quantitative analysis of these molecules, which is essential for a better understanding of their physiological functions, is still particularly challenging due to their very low abundance in(More)
Interactions between individuals of different species are commonplace in animal communities. Some behaviors displayed during these interspecific social interactions may be very similar to those displayed during intraspecific social interactions. However, whether functional analogies between intra- and interspecific behaviors translate at the proximate level(More)
The defense system of a plant can be primed for increased defense, resulting in an augmented stress resistance and/or tolerance. Priming can be triggered by biotic and abiotic stimuli, as well as by chemicals such as β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), a nonprotein amino acid considered so far a xenobiotic. Since the perception mechanism of BABA has been recently(More)
Wood ants fight pathogens by incorporating tree resin with antimicrobial properties into their nests. They also produce large quantities of formic acid in their venom gland, which they readily spray to defend or disinfect their nest. Mixing chemicals to produce powerful antibiotics is common practice in human medicine, yet evidence for the use of such(More)
The search for novel microorganisms able to degrade olive mill wastewaters (OMW) and withstand the toxic effects of the initially high phenolic concentrations is of great scientific and industrial interest. In this work, the possibility of reducing the phenolic content of OMW using new isolates of fungal strains (Coriolopsis gallica, Bjerkandera adusta,(More)
In social systems with alternative reproductive tactics, sneakers face a higher level of sperm competition than harem males and hence are predicted to allocate more resources to ejaculates. Antioxidants can protect sperm against oxidative stress, and thus, their allocation to the ejaculate may depend on mating tactic. In this study on the frugivorous bat(More)