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BACKGROUND Exposure to second-hand smoke is common in many countries but the magnitude of the problem worldwide is poorly described. We aimed to estimate the worldwide exposure to second-hand smoke and its burden of disease in children and adult non-smokers in 2004. METHODS The burden of disease from second-hand smoke was estimated as deaths and(More)
PROBLEM Tobacco use is a major contributor to deaths from chronic diseases. The findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) suggest that the estimate of a doubling of deaths from smoking (from 5 million per year to approximately 10 million per year by 2020) might be an underestimate because of the increase in smoking among young girls compared with(More)
This article presents an assessment of cervical cancer mortality trends in the Americas based on PAHO data. Trends were estimated for countries where data were available for at least 10 consecutive years, the number of cervical cancer deaths was considerable, and at least 75% of the deaths from all causes were registered. In contrast to Canada and the(More)
CONTEXT The success of measures to restrict smoking in indoor environments and the intensity of enforcement vary among countries around the world. In 2001, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) launched the Smoke-Free Americas Initiative to build capacity to achieve smoke-free environments in Latin America and the Caribbean. OBJECTIVE To assess(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare air nicotine concentrations according to the smoking policy selected by bars/restaurants in Santiago, Chile before and after the enactment of partial smoking ban legislation in 2007 (establishments could be smoke free, have segregated (mixed) smoking and non-smoking areas, or allow smoking in all areas). METHODS The study measured air(More)
BACKGROUND Brief intervention by a health professional can substantially increase smoking cessation rates among patients. However, few studies have collected information on tobacco use and training to provide cessation counselling among health professional students. OBJECTIVE To examine tobacco use prevalence and tobacco cessation training among students(More)
The present report describes opportunistic infections found at 74 autopsies of pediatric HIV/AIDS patients performed at several hospitals in Latin American countries. Fungal infections were the most common (53 cases), Candida sp. (39.18%) and Pneumocystis carinii (20.27%) being the most frequently recognized. Other fungal diseases included histoplasmosis,(More)
Eighty studies presenting original research are reviewed to explore the correlates of AIDS knowledge in samples of the general population. Results from these studies indicate that being highly educated, young or white increases the chances of being knowledgeable about AIDS and that a relationship exists between strong religious beliefs or conservative(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare tobacco control policies independently and as a package through a simulation model to project smoking prevalence and associated future premature mortality in Argentina beginning in 2001. METHODS A simulation model of tobacco control policies known as SimSmoke was modified using data for Argentina on population, fertility and(More)
Between November 1990 and January 1991, status of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was assessed for 522 men and 484 women attending the Comprehensive Health Centre in Kingston, Jamaica, for a new sexually transmitted disease (STD) complaint. Prevalence of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infection was 3.1% (31 of 1,006), a tenfold rise in seroprevalence in(More)