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BACKGROUND Exposure to second-hand smoke is common in many countries but the magnitude of the problem worldwide is poorly described. We aimed to estimate the worldwide exposure to second-hand smoke and its burden of disease in children and adult non-smokers in 2004. METHODS The burden of disease from second-hand smoke was estimated as deaths and(More)
PROBLEM Tobacco use is a major contributor to deaths from chronic diseases. The findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) suggest that the estimate of a doubling of deaths from smoking (from 5 million per year to approximately 10 million per year by 2020) might be an underestimate because of the increase in smoking among young girls compared with(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare air nicotine concentrations according to the smoking policy selected by bars/restaurants in Santiago, Chile before and after the enactment of partial smoking ban legislation in 2007 (establishments could be smoke free, have segregated (mixed) smoking and non-smoking areas, or allow smoking in all areas). METHODS The study measured air(More)
The present report describes opportunistic infections found at 74 autopsies of pediatric HIV/AIDS patients performed at several hospitals in Latin American countries. Fungal infections were the most common (53 cases), Candida sp. (39.18%) and Pneumocystis carinii (20.27%) being the most frequently recognized. Other fungal diseases included histoplasmosis,(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare tobacco control policies independently and as a package through a simulation model to project smoking prevalence and associated future premature mortality in Argentina beginning in 2001. METHODS A simulation model of tobacco control policies known as SimSmoke was modified using data for Argentina on population, fertility and(More)
Eighty studies presenting original research are reviewed to explore the correlates of AIDS knowledge in samples of the general population. Results from these studies indicate that being highly educated, young or white increases the chances of being knowledgeable about AIDS and that a relationship exists between strong religious beliefs or conservative(More)
Of 970 sexually transmitted disease (STD) patients enrolled at the Comprehensive Health Centre, Kingston, Jamaica, between November 1990 and January 1991, 710 (73%, 333 men and 377 women) were reexamined between January 1992 and July 1993 to estimate the incidence of HIV and HTLV-I infection and to identify risk factors for infection. Of those reexamined,(More)
BACKGROUND In the last decades, chronic non communicable diseases are becoming the main cause of disability and mortality among adults. The risk factor surveillance and management is the most efficient mean of reducing the impact of these diseases. AIM To report the results of a non communicable disease risk factor surveillance program in Valparaiso,(More)
BACKGROUND Smoke-free legislation eliminating tobacco smoke in all indoor public places and workplaces is the international standard to protect all people from exposure to secondhand smoke. Uruguay was the first country in the Americas and the first middle-income country in the world to enact a comprehensive smoke-free national legislation in March 2006. (More)
CONTEXT The success of measures to restrict smoking in indoor environments and the intensity of enforcement vary among countries around the world. In 2001, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) launched the Smoke-Free Americas Initiative to build capacity to achieve smoke-free environments in Latin America and the Caribbean. OBJECTIVE To assess(More)