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An increase of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity has been observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients affected by pulmonary fibrosis in chronic interstitial lung disorders. To characterize the ALP isoenzymes in such cases, we used gel filtration, agarose gel electrophoresis, heat and amino acid inhibition assays, wheat-germ agglutinin(More)
There are increased numbers of activated T lymphocytes in the bronchial mucosa of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. T helper type 17 (Th17) cells release interleukin (IL)-17 as their effector cytokine under the control of IL-22 and IL-23. Furthermore, Th17 numbers are increased in some chronic inflammatory conditions. To(More)
Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta are two CC chemokines that induce lymphocyte migration. MIP-1alpha preferentially mediates chemotaxis of CD8 rather than CD4 lymphocytes, whereas the reverse is true for MIP-1beta. Both these chemokines recognize CCR5 as a cellular receptor in T lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages. We measured the(More)
BACKGROUND Reactive nitrogen species, formed via the reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with superoxide anion and via (myelo)peroxidase-dependent oxidation of NO(2)(-), have potent proinflammatory and oxidizing actions. Reactive nitrogen species formation and nitrosative stress are potentially involved in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)(More)
To investigate the relationship between airflow limitation and airway inflammation in smokers, we examined paraffin-embedded bronchial biopsies obtained from 30 smokers: 10 with severe airflow limitation, eight with mild/moderate airflow limitation, and 12 control smokers with normal lung function. Histochemical and immunohistochemical methods were(More)
CC-chemokines are chemotactic factors expressed in a wide range of cell types and tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of CC-chemokines in the airways inflammation of patients affected by chronic bronchitis. The study evaluated, with an immunoassay, the concentrations of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage(More)
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in lung lavage fluids is a marker of tissue damage and type II cell proliferation. Type II pneumocytes are extensively involved in fibrosis. The aim of our study was to verify whether local ALP activity can be held as a marker of fibrosis in chronic interstitial lung disorders. ALP was determined in the bronchoalveolar lavage of(More)
Mucosal defence mechanisms are critical in preventing colonization of the respiratory tract by pathogens and penetration of antigens through the epithelial barrier. Recent research has now illustrated the active contribution of the respiratory epithelium to the exclusion of microbes and particles, but also to the control of the inflammatory and immune(More)
BACKGROUND Increased numbers of activated neutrophils have been reported in the bronchial mucosa of patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly in severe disease. OBJECTIVES To investigate the expression of neutrophilic chemokines and adhesion molecules in bronchial biopsies from patients with stable COPD of different(More)
Bacterial extracts can act as immune stimulants and in some instances have been used, rather empirically, to prevent recurrent infections in the nonimmunocompromised host. Some agents are administered via oral route with the goal to increase airways immune defenses. In animal models and in normal humans, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) stimulation is(More)