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With industrial revolution came idea of " two spheres " Because it wasn't paid, women's housework was devalued A majority of women are now in the labor force However, in two-wage earner couples, women continue to do more housework than men Wives (1995): 19.4 hours per week; husbands: 10.4 hours When women marry their housework goes up Non-married women(More)
From a social capital theoretical perspective, deficiencies in access to mainstream ties and institutions explain persistent joblessness among the black urban poor. Little problematized, however, is the extent to which access leads to mobilization and the social context within which social capital activation occurs. Employing in-depth interviews of 105(More)
Activation of gene expression in eukaryotes generally involves the action of multiple transcription factors that function synergistically when bound near a particular target gene. Such effects have been suggested to occur because multiple activators can interact simultaneously with one or more components of the basal transcription machinery. In prokaryotes,(More)
The bacteriophage lambda repressor and its relatives bind cooperatively to adjacent as well as artificially separated operator sites. This cooperativity is mediated by a protein-protein interaction between the DNA-bound dimers. Here we use a genetic approach to identify two pairs of amino acids that interact at the dimer-dimer interface. One of these pairs(More)
The Family and Medical Leave Act requires employers to provide job-protected leave, but little is known about how these leave rights operate in practice or how they interact with other normative systems to construct the meaning of leave. Drawing on interviews with workers who negotiated contested leaves, this study examines how social institutions influence(More)
Lambda repressors bind cooperatively to adjacent pairs of operator sites. Here we show that repressors bind cooperatively to pairs of operator sites whose centers have been separated by five or six turns of the helix. No cooperativity is observed when the centers of these sites are on opposite sides of the DNA helix. Cooperativity depends upon the same part(More)
Two heterologous prokaryotic activators, the bacteriophage lambda cI protein (lambda cI) and the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), were shown to activate transcription synergistically from an artificial promoter bearing binding sites for both proteins. The synergy depends on a functional activation (positive control) surface on each(More)
Many transcriptional activators in prokaryotes are known to bind near a promoter and contact RNA polymerase, but it is not clear whether a protein-protein contact between an activator and RNA polymerase is enough to activate gene transcription. Here we show that contact between a DNA-bound protein and a heterologous protein domain fused to RNA polymerase(More)
Evidence obtained in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes indicates that arbitrary contacts between DNA-bound proteins and components of the transcriptional machinery can activate transcription. Here we demonstrate that the Escherichia coli omega protein, which copurifies with RNA polymerase, can function as a transcriptional activator when linked covalently to(More)
It has been suggested that the lambda repressor stimulates transcription of its own gene by binding to the lambda operator and contacting RNA polymerase bound to the adjacent promoter. We describe three different mutants (called pc) of the lambda phage repressor that are specifically deficient in the positive control function. We show that the amino acid(More)