Arlene Holen

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The aims of the PBL group are briefly stated: the facilitation of learning, the fostering of self-directed and lifelong learners, and the developments of social skills that may enhance professional relations. These goals may only be reached by systematic and proficient work with the group processes in PBL; and this work has relevance in all the phases of(More)
Journal Impact Factor (JIF) has been used in assessing scientific journals. Other indices, h- and g-indices and Article Influence Score (AIS), have been developed to overcome some limitations of JIF. The aims of this study were, first, to critically assess the use of JIF and other parameters related to medical education research, and second, to discuss the(More)
Preface The world is in the midst of a great demographic transition. The world population nearly quadrupled during the 20th century and is projected to grow by roughly 50 percent before stabilizing during the late 21st century. That transition is expected to leave the population much larger and, on average, older than it was previously—developments that(More)
CBO Note Numbers in the text and tables may not add up to totals because of rounding. Preface The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) regularly reviews its estimating methods to consider issues that could affect its economic forecast and projections. This background paper examines how spending for research and development influences economic growth and(More)
Notes Numbers may not add up to totals because of rounding. In this report, the word " country " includes the European Union. For purposes of international trade policy, the European Union is effectively one country. There is free trade among its members, its members have a common trade policy toward the rest of the world, and the union itself (rather than(More)
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