Arlene H Sharpe

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Functional impairment of antigen-specific T cells is a defining characteristic of many chronic infections, but the underlying mechanisms of T-cell dysfunction are not well understood. To address this question, we analysed genes expressed in functionally impaired virus-specific CD8 T cells present in mice chronically infected with lymphocytic(More)
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, deliver inhibitory signals that regulate the balance between T cell activation, tolerance, and immunopathology. Immune responses to foreign and self-antigens require specific and balanced responses to clear pathogens and tumors and yet maintain tolerance. Induction and maintenance of T cell(More)
The p63 gene, a homologue of the tumour-suppressor p53, is highly expressed in the basal or progenitor layers of many epithelial tissues. Here we report that mice homozygous for a disrupted p63 gene have major defects in their limb, craniofacial and epithelial development. p63 is expressed in the ectodermal surfaces of the limb buds, branchial arches and(More)
The discovery of new functions for the original B7 family members, together with the identification of additional B7 and CD28 family members, have revealed new ways in which the B7:CD28 family regulates T cell activation and tolerance. B7-1/B7-2:CD28 interactions not only promote initial T cell activation but also regulate self-tolerance by supporting(More)
We have generated mice carrying a mutation of the gene encoding the low affinity NGF receptor p75NGFR by targeted mutation in embryonic stem cells. Mice homozygous for the mutation were viable and fertile. Immunohistochemical analyses of the footpad skin of mutant mice revealed markedly decreased sensory innervation by calcitonin gene-related peptide- and(More)
p73 (ref. 1) has high homology with the tumour suppressor p53 (refs 2-4), as well as with p63, a gene implicated in the maintenance of epithelial stem cells. Despite the localization of the p73 gene to chromosome 1p36.3, a region of frequent aberration in a wide range of human cancers, and the ability of p73 to transactivate p53 target genes, it is unclear(More)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the PD-1: PD-ligand (PD-L) pathway are both critical to terminating immune responses. Elimination of either can result in the breakdown of tolerance and the development of autoimmunity. The PD-1: PD-L pathway can thwart self-reactive T cells and protect against autoimmunity in many ways. In this review, we highlight how PD-1(More)
CD28/B7 costimulation has been implicated in the induction and progression of autoimmune diseases. Experimentally induced models of autoimmunity have been shown to be prevented or reduced in intensity in mice rendered deficient for CD28 costimulation. In sharp contrast, spontaneous diabetes is exacerbated in both B7-1/B7-2-deficient and CD28-deficient NOD(More)
The B7-1/B7-2-CD28/CTLA-4 pathway is crucial in regulating T-cell activation and tolerance. New B7 and CD28 molecules have recently been discovered and new pathways have been delineated that seem to be important for regulating the responses of previously activated T cells. Several B7 homologues are expressed on cells other than professional(More)
Pathways in the B7:CD28 family of costimulatory molecules regulate T cell activation and tolerance. B7-dependent responses in Cd28(-/-)Ctla4(-/-) T cells together with reports of stimulatory and inhibitory functions for Programmed Death-1 Ligand 1 or 2 molecules (PD-L1 or PD-L2) have suggested additional receptors for these B7 family members. We show that(More)