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Histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are enzymes that catalyze the deacetylation and acetylation of lysine residues located in the NH(2) terminal tails of histones and non-histone proteins. Perturbation of this balance is often observed in human cancers and inhibition of HDACs has emerged as a novel therapeutic strategy against(More)
Analogues of the clinical compound MGCD0103 (A) were designed and synthesized. These compounds inhibit recombinant human HDAC1 with IC(50) values in the sub-micromolar range. In human cancer cells growing in culture these compounds induce hyperacetylation of histones, cause expression of the tumor suppressor protein p21(WAF1/CIP1), and inhibit cellular(More)
The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of N-(2-aminophenyl)-4-[(4-pyridin-3-ylpyrimidin-2-ylamino)methyl]benzamide 8 (MGCD0103) is described. Compound 8 is an isotype-selective small molecule histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that selectively inhibits HDACs 1-3 and 11 at submicromolar concentrations in vitro. 8 blocks cancer cell proliferation(More)
The inhibitory activity of base-modified SAH analogues and the specificity of inhibiting human DNMT1 and DNMT3b2 enzymes was explored. The 6-amino group was essential while the 7-N of the adenine ring of SAH could be replaced by CH- without loss of activity against both enzymes. The introduction of small groups at the 2-position of the adenine moiety favors(More)
A series of new, structurally simple trichostatin A (TSA)-like straight chain hydroxamates were prepared and evaluated for their ability to inhibit partially purified human histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC-1). Some of these compounds such as 8m, 8n, 12, and 15b exhibited potent HDAC inhibitory activity with low nanomolar IC(50) values, comparable to natural TSA.(More)
Significant effort is being made to understand the role of HDAC isotypes in human cancer and to develop antitumor agents with better therapeutic windows. A part of this endeavor was the exploration of the 14 A internal cavity adjacent to the enzyme catalytic site, which led to the design and synthesis of compound 4 with the unusual bis(aryl)-type(More)
The synthesis and biological evaluation of a variety of 4-(heteroarylaminomethyl)-N-(2-aminophenyl)-benzamides and their analogs is described. Some of these compounds were shown to inhibit HDAC1 with IC(50) values below the micromolar range, induce hyperacetylation of histones, upregulate expression of the tumor suppressor p21(WAF1/Cip1), and inhibit(More)
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors constitute a novel and growing class of anticancer agents that function by altering intracellular patterns of histone acetylation, the so-called epigenetic "histone code," thereby producing changes in cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and/or apoptosis in tumor cells. This overview describes the chemistry and(More)
A novel series of malonamide-type dual VEGFR2/c-Met inhibitors in which one of the amide bonds was replaced by an amide isostere-a trifluoroethylamine unit, was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their enzymatic and cellular inhibition of VEGFR2 and c-Met enzymes. Optimization of these molecular entities resulted in identification of potent and(More)
Potent SAH analogues with constrained homocysteine units have been designed and synthesized as inhibitors of human DNMT enzymes. The five membered (2S,4S)-4-mercaptopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid, in 1a, was a good replacement for homocysteine, while the corresponding six-member counterpart was less active. Further optimization of 1a, changed the selectivity(More)