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Maternal undernutrition contributes to 800,000 neonatal deaths annually through small for gestational age births; stunting, wasting, and micronutrient deficiencies are estimated to underlie nearly 3·1 million child deaths annually. Progress has been made with many interventions implemented at scale and the evidence for effectiveness of nutrition(More)
Several recent reviews of maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and mortality have emphasised that a large range of interventions are available with the potential to reduce deaths and disability. The emphasis within MNCH varies, with skilled care at facility levels recommended for saving maternal lives and scale-up of community and household care for(More)
Progress in newborn survival has been slow, and even more so for reductions in stillbirths. To meet Every Newborn targets of ten or fewer neonatal deaths and ten or fewer stillbirths per 1000 births in every country by 2035 will necessitate accelerated scale-up of the most effective care targeting major causes of newborn deaths. We have systematically(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in Pakistan and are potentially associated with maternal undernutrition and intrauterine growth retardation. Intervention strategies largely consist of administration of iron-folic acid supplements during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the acceptability of multiple micronutrient(More)
BACKGROUND Stimulation and nutrition delivered through health programmes at a large scale could potentially benefit more than 200 million young children worldwide who are not meeting their developmental potential. We investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of the integration of interventions to enhance child development and growth outcomes in the(More)
Despite the frequency of stillbirths, the subsequent implications are overlooked and underappreciated. We present findings from comprehensive, systematic literature reviews, and new analyses of published and unpublished data, to establish the effect of stillbirth on parents, families, health-care providers, and societies worldwide. Data for direct costs of(More)
Global mortality in children younger than 5 years has fallen substantially in the past two decades from more than 12 million in 1990, to 6·9 million in 2011, but progress is inconsistent between countries. Pneumonia and diarrhoea are the two leading causes of death in this age group and have overlapping risk factors. Several interventions can effectively(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence of neonatal jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia in a poor urban community in Karachi, where 70% of births occur at home. METHODS Home-based pregnancy and newborn surveillance were conducted from September 2004 to July 2006 in a multi-ethnic population by trained community health workers. Newborns were visited several times(More)
Worldwide, 2·65 million (uncertainty range 2·08 million to 3·79 million) stillbirths occur yearly, of which 98% occur in countries of low and middle income. Despite the fact that more than 45% of the global burden of stillbirths occur intrapartum, the perception is that little is known about effective interventions, especially those that can be implemented(More)
Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of maternal, fetal, and child mortality. It has made slow progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 and in addressing common social determinants of health. The country also has huge challenges of political fragility, complex security issues, and natural disasters. We undertook an(More)