Arjan Barendregt

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Prokaryotes have evolved multiple versions of an RNA-guided adaptive immune system that targets foreign nucleic acids. In each case, transcripts derived from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) are thought to selectively target invading phage and plasmids in a sequence-specific process involving a variable cassette of(More)
CRISPR-Cas is a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that provides sequence-specific defense against foreign nucleic acids. Here we report the structure and function of the effector complex of the Type III-A CRISPR-Cas system of Thermus thermophilus: the Csm complex (TtCsm). TtCsm is composed of five different protein subunits (Csm1-Csm5) with an uneven(More)
The CRISPR-Cas system is a prokaryotic host defense system against genetic elements. The Type III-B CRISPR-Cas system of the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, the TtCmr complex, is composed of six different protein subunits (Cmr1-6) and one crRNA with a stoichiometry of Cmr112131445361:crRNA1. The TtCmr complex copurifies with crRNA species of 40 and 46 nt,(More)
An alternative approach is introduced in determining the in vitro intrinsic clearance of slowly metabolized compounds. The longterm sandwich rat hepatocyte culture was exploited, allowing for sufficient substrate depletion to obtain a reliable clearance estimation; in its physiology, it resembles the in vivo liver, thus allowing in vivo extrapolation of the(More)
The molecular complexity of biopharmaceuticals puts severe demands on the bioanalytical techniques required for their comprehensive structural characterization. Mass spectrometry (MS) has gained importance in the analysis of biopharmaceuticals, taking different complementary approaches ranging from peptide-based sequencing to direct analysis of intact(More)
The structural analysis of macromolecular functional protein assemblies by contemporary high resolution structural biology techniques (such as nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray crystallography, and electron microscopy) is often still challenging. The potential of a rather new method to generate structural information, native mass spectrometry, in(More)
The application of sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes for the identification of the hepatic intrinsic clearance of compounds with widely varying extraction ratios was investigated. We previously showed the applicability of this in vitro system, in combination with a model describing molecular diffusion, hepatocyte/medium partition, and nonsaturated(More)
Comparative analysis of the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima revealed a hypothetical protein (EstA) with typical esterase features. The EstA protein was functionally produced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. It indeed displayed esterase activity with optima at or above 95 degrees C and at pH 8.5, with a(More)
Freely dissolved pore water concentrations are difficult to assess in complex matrixes such as soils or sediments. In this study, a negligible-depletion partitioning-based sampling technique was applied to measure freely dissolved pore water concentrations. A poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-coated glass fiber was exposed to a slurry of a soil spiked with(More)
To investigate the in vitro release of octreotide acetate, a somatostatin agonist, from microspheres based on a hydrophilic polyester, poly(D,L-lactide-co-hydroxymethyl glycolide) (PLHMGA). Spherical and non-porous octreotide-loaded PLHMGA microspheres (12 to 16 μm) and loading efficiency of 60–70% were prepared by a solvent evaporation. Octreotide release(More)