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The strong reciprocity model of the evolution of human cooperation has gained some acceptance, partly on the basis of support from experimental findings. The observation that unfair offers in the ultimatum game are frequently rejected constitutes an important piece of the experimental evidence for strong reciprocity. In the present study, we have challenged(More)
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a purine enzyme which is essential for the proliferation, maturation and function of lymphoid cells, and congenital deficiency of this enzyme is associated with severe combined immunodeficiency disease. The activity of ADA has changed in diseases characterized by the alteration of cell-mediated immunity such as rheumatoid(More)
This study investigated changes in the proportion of T helper (Th)1 and Th2 cells in cord blood after premature rupture of membranes (PROM), and evaluate the effects of PROM on the intrauterine fetal immune status. The proportion of CD3-positive T cells secreting interferon (IFN)-γ as an index of Th1 cells, and interleukin (IL)-4 as an index of Th2 cells in(More)
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis experience nociceptive as well as neuropathic pain. The effect of iguratimod (IGU), a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug, on neuropathic pain in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI) was examined in this study. CCI was induced by making four ligations on the left sciatic nerve. Rats with stable signs of(More)
1. The contractile behavior of the large intestine of Xenopus laevis tadpoles was studied. 2. The large intestine is divided into a colon and rectum, and shows three types of movements: rhythmic ascending (antiperistaltic) waves of contraction originating at the anal end of the large bowel, rhythmic longitudinal contractions in the rectum and colon, and(More)
The pathological mechanisms of critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP), an acute neuromuscular disorder, remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated nerve and vascular properties that might account for electrophysiological abnormalities, including reduced nerve conduction amplitude, in the early phase of CIP. Rats were administered intravenous saline(More)
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