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Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is trophic to motor and sensory neurones in animal models. GDNF mRNA is up-regulated in Schwann cells after peripheral nerve injury in rats. We have quantified and localized GDNF and its receptor component Ret, for the first time in any species, in injured human peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglia(More)
We previously demonstrated that trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes human adipocyte delipidation, insulin resistance, and inflammation in part by attenuating PPARgamma target gene expression. We hypothesized that CLA antagonizes the activity of PPARgamma in an isomer-specific manner. 10,12 CLA, but not cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA,(More)
Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), a member of the neurotrophin family, has been shown to be necessary for the development of muscle spindle and Merkel cell afferent nerve fibres in animal models. The presence of NT-3 in the suprabasal epidermis, where many unmyelinated sensory fibres terminate, has been shown for the first time. As these fibres are affected in early(More)
Adipose tissue (AT) expansion is accompanied by the infiltration and accumulation of AT macrophages (ATMs), as well as a shift in ATM polarization. Several studies have implicated recruited M1 ATMs in the metabolic consequences of obesity; however, little is known regarding the role of alternatively activated resident M2 ATMs in AT homeostasis or how their(More)
Increased deposition of specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components is a characteristic of insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. Hyaluronan (HA) is a major constituent of the ECM. The hypotheses that 1) HA content is increased in the ECM of insulin-resistant skeletal muscle and 2) reduction of HA in the muscle ECM by long-acting pegylated human recombinant(More)
OBJECTIVE Mice with CCR2 deficiency are protected from insulin resistance but only after long periods of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, despite the virtual absence of circulating inflammatory monocytes. We performed a time course study in mice with hematopoietic and global CCR2 deficiency to determine adipose tissue-specific mechanisms for the delayed impact(More)
OBJECTIVE Macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue (AT) during obesity contributes to inflammation and insulin resistance. Recruitment of monocytes to obese AT has been the most studied mechanism explaining this accumulation. However, recent evidence suggests that recruitment-independent mechanisms may also regulate pro-inflammatory AT macrophage (ATM)(More)
Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation during obesity is mediated by immune cells and closely correlates with systemic insulin resistance. In lean AT, eosinophils are present in low but significant numbers and capable of promoting alternative macrophage activation in an IL-4/IL-13-dependent manner. In WT mice, obesity causes the proportion of AT eosinophils to(More)
Obesity is one of the leading causes of morbidity in the U.S. Accumulation of proinflammatory immune cells in adipose tissue (AT) contributes to the development of obesity-associated disorders. Weight loss is the ideal method to counteract the negative consequences of obesity; however, losses are rarely maintained, leading to bouts of weight cycling.(More)