Arion J. Kennedy

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Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a family of fatty acids found in beef, dairy foods and dietary supplements, reduces adiposity in several animal models of obesity and some human studies. However, the isomer-specific antiobesity mechanisms of action of CLA are unclear, and its use in humans is controversial. This review will summarize in vivo and in vitro(More)
The ATP binding cassette (ABC) half-transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 facilitate biliary and intestinal removal of neutral sterols. Here, we identify a binding site for the orphan nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) at nt 134-142 of the ABCG5/ABCG8 intergenic region necessary for the activity of both the ABCG5 and ABCG8 promoters. Mutating this(More)
Obesity-associated inflammation is characterized by recruitment of macrophages (MPhi) into white adipose tissue (WAT) and production of inflammatory cytokines, leading to the development of insulin resistance. The xanthones, alpha- and gamma-mangostin (MG), are major bioactive compounds found in mangosteen that are reported to have antiinflammatory and(More)
We previously demonstrated that trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes human adipocyte delipidation, insulin resistance, and inflammation in part by attenuating PPARgamma target gene expression. We hypothesized that CLA antagonizes the activity of PPARgamma in an isomer-specific manner. 10,12 CLA, but not cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA,(More)
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by obesity concomitant with other metabolic abnormalities such as hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high-density lipoprotein levels, elevated blood pressure and raised fasting glucose levels. The precise definition of MetS, the relationships of its metabolic features, and what initiates it, are debated. However,(More)
Recent data suggest that proinflammatory cytokines secreted from adipose tissue contribute to the morbidity associated with obesity. However, characterization of the cell types involved in inflammation and how these cells promote insulin resistance in human adipocytes are unclear. We simulated acute inflammation using the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)(More)
This review highlights the inflammatory and insulin-antagonizing effects of saturated fatty acids (SFA), which contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome. Mechanisms responsible for these unhealthy effects of SFA include: 1) accumulation of diacylglycerol and ceramide; 2) activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, protein kinase C-, and mitogen-activated(More)
We showed previously in cultures of primary human adipocytes and preadipocytes that lipopolysaccharide and trans-10,cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (10,12-CLA) activate the inflammatory signaling that promotes insulin resistance. Because our published data demonstrated that preadipocytes are the primary instigators of inflammatory signaling in(More)
BACKGROUND Quercetin and trans-resveratrol (trans-RSV) are plant polyphenols reported to reduce inflammation or insulin resistance associated with obesity. Recently, we showed that grape powder extract, which contains quercetin and trans-RSV, attenuates markers of inflammation in human adipocytes and macrophages and insulin resistance in human adipocytes.(More)
The xanthones, alpha- and gamma-mangostin (MG), are major bioactive compounds found in mangosteen and are reported to have antiinflammatory properties in several murine models. Given the association between obesity, chronic low-grade inflammation, and insulin resistance, we examined the effects of alpha- and gamma-MG on markers of inflammation and insulin(More)