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BACKGROUND & AIMS We recently showed that mice deficient in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) or its adapter molecule MyD88 have increased signs of colitis compared with wild-type (WT) mice after dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced injury. We wished to test the hypothesis that cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is important in TLR4-related(More)
Outbreaks of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are occurring in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. We evaluated risk factors and liver histopathology in 11 consecutively enrolled men with newly acquired HCV infection that was diagnosed on the basis of antibody seroconversion, new elevations in alanine aminotransferase level, and wide fluctuations(More)
Growing clinical and experimental evidence suggests that sterile inflammation contributes to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is highly induced during liver injury; however, a link between this alarmin and ALD has not been established. Thus, the aim of this work was to determine whether HMGB1 contributes to the pathogenesis(More)
In the United States, an estimated 3.2 million persons are living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV transmission occurs primarily through percutaneous exposure to blood, and persons who inject drugs are at greatest risk for infection. The role of sexual transmission of HCV has not been well defined. However, reports over the past decade, mainly(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) core gene is more conserved at the nucleic acid level than is necessary to preserve the sequence of the core protein, suggesting that it contains information for additional functions. We used a battery of anticore antibodies to test the hypothesis that the core gene directs the synthesis of core protein isoforms. Infectious(More)
Macrophages are major HIV target cells. They support both productive and latent HIV-1 infection. Susceptibility of primary macrophages to HIV depends on the anatomical location and activation state of the cells. We demonstrate that peritoneal macrophages (PMs) are abundant in ascitic fluid of patients with liver cirrhosis and are susceptible to HIV-1(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is unique among RNA viruses in its ability to establish chronic infection in the majority of exposed adults. HCV persists in the liver despite interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene (ISG) induction; robust induction actually predicts treatment failure and viral persistence. It is unclear which forms of HCV RNA are associated with ISG(More)
Many anti-HCV antibodies are available, but more are needed for research and clinical applications. This study examines whether ascitic fluid from cirrhotic patients could be a source of reagent-grade antibodies. Ascitic fluid from 29 HCV patients was screened by ELISA for anti-HCV antibodies against three viral proteins: core, NS4B, and NS5A. Significant(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Although patients infected by genotype 1b hepatitis C virus (HCV) with Q(70) and/or M(91)core gene mutations have an almost five-fold increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and increased insulin resistance, the absence of a suitable experimental system has precluded direct experimentation on the effects of these(More)