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The concept of submodularity plays a vital role in com-binatorial optimization. In particular, many important optimization problems can be cast as submodu-lar maximization problems, including maximum coverage , maximum facility location and max cut in di-rected/undirected graphs. In this paper we present the first known approximation algorithms for the(More)
Using in situ hybridisation histochemistry in combination with patch-clamp recordings and specific pharmacological tools, the molecular nature of the channels underlying Ca2+-dependent K+ currents was determined in dorsal vagal neurones (DVNs) of rat brainstem slices. In situ hybridisation analysis at cellular resolution revealed the presence of(More)
Whole cell recordings of fura-2 dialyzed vagal neurons of brain stem slices were used to monitor interstitial glutamate accumulation within the dorsal vagal complex. Anoxia produced a sustained outward current (60 pA) and a moderate [Ca(2+)](i) rise (40 nM). These responses were neither mimicked by [1S,3R]-1-aminocyclo-pentane-1, 3-dicarboxylic acid nor(More)
The contribution of subclasses of K(+) channels to the response of mammalian neurons to anoxia is not yet clear. We investigated the role of ATP-sensitive (K(ATP)) and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) currents (small conductance, SK, big conductance, BK) in mediating the effects of chemical anoxia by cyanide, as determined by electrophysiological analysis and(More)
In hippocampal slices from rats, dialysis with rhodamine-123 (Rh-123) and/or fura-2 via the patch electrode allowed monitoring of mitochondrial potential (DeltaPsi) changes and intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Plasmalemmal depolarization to 0 mV caused a mean [Ca(2+)](i) rise of 300 nM and increased Rh-123 fluorescence signal(More)
We motivate and describe a new parameterized approximation paradigm which studies the interaction between performance ratio and running time for any parameterization of a given optimization problem. As a key tool, we introduce the concept of α-shrinking transformation, for α ≥ 1. Applying such transformation to a parameterized problem instance decreases the(More)
Adrenoceptors were among the first neurotransmitter receptors identified in glial cells, but it is not known whether these receptors meditate glial responses during neuronal activity. We show that repetitive nerve activity evoked a rise of intracellular calcium in Bergmann glia and neighboring Purkinje neurons of cerebellar slices of mice. The glial but not(More)
The cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured from Purkinje neurons in acutely prepared cerebellar slices. Neurons were loaded with calcium indicator Fura-2 by 40-min slice incubation in Tyrode solution containing 5 microM Fura-2/AM and 0.02% pluronic-F127. Bath applications of ATP (100 microM), epinephrine (10 microM) and histamine (100(More)
Intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) was fluorometrically measured with fura-2 in lumbar motoneurons of acutely isolated spinal cord slices from embryonic rats. In ester-loaded cells, bath-applied glutamate (3 microM to 1 mM) evoked a [Ca(2+)](i) increase by up to 250 nM that was abolished by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) plus(More)
Ca(2+) imaging and (perforated) patch recording were used to analyze the mechanism of GABA- and glycine-induced depolarizations in lumbar motoneurons of spinal cord slices from fetal rats. In fura-2 ester-loaded cells, the agonist-induced depolarizations increased [Ca(2+)](i) by up to 100 nm. The GABA- and glycine-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) transients were(More)