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The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is produced by peripheral immune cells as well as glia and neurons within the brain; it plays a major role in immune to brain communication and in modulation of neural, neuroendocrine, and behavioral systems during illness. Although previous studies demonstrated that excess levels of IL-1 impaired memory processes and(More)
Unlike the proposed role of reactive oxygen species in neurodegeneration, acute effects of reactive oxygen on synaptic plasticity are poorly understood. Using rat hippocampal slices, we found that exposure to a high concentration (0.5-5 mm) of H(2)O(2) reduces EPSPs in both potentiated and nonpotentiated synapses. Exposure of the slices to 20 microm(More)
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species, is assumed to have a detrimental effect on neuronal plasticity. Indeed, H2O2 suppresses long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal slices of normal rats and wild-type (wt) mice. Transgenic mice overexpressing superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 (tg-SOD), which maintain high ambient H2O2, have also been shown to(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been considered for some time only in the context of oxidative stress-induced cell damage. In this review, we discuss the growing body of evidence that implicates ROS in general, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in particular, in regulatory events underlying synaptic plasticity. H2O2 is regarded in this context as a specific(More)
To investigate the role of M1 muscarininc acetylcholine receptors (m1 receptors) in metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-mediated long-term depression (LTD), we produced mouse lines in which deletion of the m1 gene is restricted to the forebrain (FB-m1KO) or hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons (CA3-m1KO). Stimulation in FB-m1KO hippocampal slices resulted(More)
1. The pathogenesis of the selective degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease is still enigmatic. Recently we have shown that dopamine can induce apoptosis in postmitotic neuronal cells, as well as in other cellular systems, thus suggesting a role for this endogenous neurotransmitter and associated oxidative stress in the neuronal(More)
Down's syndrome (DS), the phenotypic manifestation of trisomy 21, involves overexpression of chromosome 21-encoded genes. The gene for amyloid precursor protein (APP), known to be involved in AD pathology, resides on chromosome 21 along with the gene for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), a key enzyme in the metabolism of oxygen free radicals. We(More)
The recent finding that hippocampal slices from aged mice overexpressing the gene for superoxide dismutase (SOD) exhibit long-term potentiation (LTP) of reactivity to afferent stimulation that is significantly larger than that produced in aged wild-type (wt) mice has encouraged the exploration of the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on learning in(More)