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Why do seemingly identical cells respond differently to a drug? To address this, we studied the dynamics and variability of the protein response of human cancer cells to a chemotherapy drug, camptothecin. We present a dynamic-proteomics approach that measures the levels and locations of nearly 1000 different endogenously tagged proteins in individual living(More)
Signal-transduction cascades are usually studied on cell averages, masking variability between individual cells. To address this, we studied in individual cells the dynamic response of ERK2, a well-characterized MAPK signaling protein, which enters the nucleus upon stimulation. Using fluorescent tagging at the endogenous chromosomal locus, we found that(More)
Processing of external information by mammalian cells often involves seemingly redundant isoforms of signaling molecules and transcription factors. Understanding the functional relevance of coexpressed isoforms that respond to the same signal and control a shared set of genes is still limited. Here we show, using imaging of individual living mammalian(More)
Drugs and drug combinations have complex biological effects on cells and organisms. Little is known about how drugs affect protein dynamics that determine these effects. Here, we use a dynamic proteomics approach to accurately follow 15 protein levels in human cells in response to 13 different drugs. We find that protein dynamics in response to combinations(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective was to compare, in a real-world setting, the risk of mental and physical health events associated with different antipsychotic drugs (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and first-generation antipsychotics) in patients with SZ. METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study using administrative data. Outcome measures(More)
The results of this study attribute to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) a role in regeneration of injured mammalian central nervous system (CNS) axons which grow into their own degenerating environment. This is the first time that a specific factor involved in axonal regeneration has been identified. The axonal environment is occupied mostly by glia cells, i.e.,(More)
A current challenge in biology is to understand the dynamics of protein circuits in living human cells. Can one define and test equations for the dynamics and variability of a protein over time? Here, we address this experimentally and theoretically, by means of accurate time-resolved measurements of endogenously tagged proteins in individual human cells.(More)
Axons of the central nervous system in adult mammals do not regenerate spontaneously after injury, partly because of the presence of oligodendrocytes that inhibit axonal growth. This is not the case in lower vertebrates (e.g., in fish), where regeneration of the optic nerve does occur spontaneously and has been correlated with the presence of factors(More)
Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) axons are virtually incapable of regenerating after injury. However, CNS neurons of lower vertebrates, such as fish and amphibians, are endowed with a high regenerative capacity. Lately, the glial cells have been credited with the regenerative ability of any specific CNS. We have previously demonstrated that many(More)
Neurons in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) have a poor capacity for regenerating their axons after injury. In contrast, neurons in the CNS of lower vertebrates and in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of mammals are endowed with a high posttraumatic capacity to regenerate. The differences in regenerative capacity have been attributed to the(More)