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The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System is both a conceptual and practical advance over its 2007 predecessor. For the first time, the WHO classification of CNS tumors uses molecular parameters in addition to histology to define many tumor entities, thus formulating a concept for how CNS tumor diagnoses(More)
BACKGROUND The prediction of clinical behavior, response to therapy, and outcome of infiltrative glioma is challenging. On the basis of previous studies of tumor biology, we defined five glioma molecular groups with the use of three alterations: mutations in the TERT promoter, mutations in IDH, and codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (1p/19q(More)
Meningiomas are extremely common adult brain tumors originating from meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord. While most are slowly growing Word Health organization (WHO) grade I tumors, rare variants (clear cell, chordoid, papillary, and rhabdoid), as well as brain invasive (WHO grade II), atypical (WHO grade II), and anaplastic (WHO grade III)(More)
PURPOSE High-grade gliomas (HGGs; WHO grades 3-4) are highly diverse, with survival times ranging from months to years. WHO 2000 grading criteria for high-grade oligodendroglial neoplasms [anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO)] remain subjective, and the existence of grade 4 variants is controversial. PATIENTS AND METHODS(More)
Meningiomas account for up to 30% of all primary intracranial tumours. They are histologically classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumours of the nervous system. Most meningiomas are benign lesions of WHO grade I, whereas some meningioma variants correspond with WHO grades II and III and are associated with a higher(More)
The role of Notch signaling in tumorigenesis can vary; Notch1 acts as an oncogene in some neoplasms, and a tumor suppressor in others. Here, we show that different Notch receptors can have opposite effects in a single tumor type. Expression of truncated, constitutively active Notch1 or Notch2 in embryonal brain tumor cell lines caused antagonistic effects(More)
Smoothened (SMO) inhibitors recently entered clinical trials for sonic-hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma (SHH-MB). Clinical response is highly variable. To understand the mechanism(s) of primary resistance and identify pathways cooperating with aberrant SHH signaling, we sequenced and profiled a large cohort of SHH-MBs (n = 133). SHH pathway mutations(More)
Meningiomas are common central nervous system tumors that originate from the meningeal coverings of the brain and the spinal cord. Most meningiomas are slowly growing benign tumors that histologically correspond to World Health Organization (WHO) grade I. However, certain rare histological variants (clear cell, chordoid, papillary, and rhabdoid), as well as(More)
The recently described "spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis" is a very rare and often misdiagnosed entity. A benign biologic behavior has been suggested based on the absence of recurrences with a median follow-up of 3 years. Herein, we present 2 cases of recurrent spindle cell oncocytomas. One patient is a 71-year-old woman (case no. 1) and the(More)
The N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) at 14q11.2 has been reported to be downregulated in glioblastoma, and NDRG2 overexpression represses glioblastoma cell proliferation in vitro (Deng et al., Int J Cancer 2003;106;342-7). To further address the role of NDRG2 as a candidate tumor suppressor in human gliomas, we analyzed 67 astrocytic tumors (10(More)