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The complete DNA sequence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XI has been determined. In addition to a compact arrangement of potential protein coding sequences, the 666,448-base-pair sequence has revealed general chromosome patterns; in particular, alternating regional variations in average base composition correlate with variations in local(More)
Determination of the calcium spark amplitude distribution is of critical importance for understanding the nature of elementary calcium release events in striated muscle. In the present study we show, on general theoretical grounds, that calcium sparks, as observed in confocal line scan images, should have a nonmodal, monotonic decreasing amplitude(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine the origin of the catecholaminergic inputs to the telencephalic basal ganglia of amphibians. For that purpose, retrograde tracing techniques were combined with tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry in the anurans Xenopus laevis and Rana perezi and the urodele Pleurodeles waltl. In all three species studied,(More)
In skeletal and cardiac muscle, calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, leading to contraction, often results in calcium sparks. Because sparks are recorded by confocal microscopy in line-scanning mode, their measured amplitude depends on their true amplitude and the position of the spark relative to the scanned line. We present a method to derive(More)
The effects of the anion perchlorate (present extracellularly at 8 mM) were studied on functional skeletal muscle fibers from Rana pipiens, voltage-clamped in a Vaseline gap chamber. Established methods were used to monitor intramembranous charge movement and flux of Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) during pulse depolarization. Saponin(More)
As a further step in unraveling the organization of the basal ganglia of amphibians, the efferent connections of the striatum and the nucleus accumbens have been studied in the brains of the anurans, Rana perezi and Xenopus laevis, and the urodele, Pleurodeles waltl, by using biotinylated or fluorescent dextran amines as anterograde tracers. A common(More)
Because our knowledge of cholinergic systems in the brains of amphibians is limited, the present study aimed to provide detailed information on the distribution of cholinergic cell bodies and fibers as revealed by immunohistochemistry with antibodies directed against the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). To determine general and derived features of(More)
A comparative analysis of catecholaminergic systems in the brain and spinal cord of vertebrates forces to reconsider several aspects of the organization of catecholamine systems. Evidence has been provided for the existence of extensive, putatively catecholaminergic cell groups in the spinal cord, the pretectum, the habenular region, and cortical and(More)
As part of a research program to determine if the organization of basal ganglia (BG) of amphibians is homologous to that of amniotes, the afferent connections of the BG in the anurans Xenopus laevis and Rana perezi and the urodele Pleurodeles waltl were investigated with sensitive tract-tracing techniques. Hodological evidence is presented that supports a(More)
We provide a detailed and exhaustive description of forebrain regions, nuclei, and neuronal populations which express the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Islet1 during Xenopus development. To this end, Isl1 immunofluorescence staining was combined with other regional or neuronal markers such as Nkx2.1, Pax6, GABA, nitric oxide synthase, tyrosine(More)