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The distribution of effect sizes of genes underlying adaptation is unknown (Orr 2005). Are suites of traits that diverged under natural selection controlled by a few pleiotropic genes of large effect (major genes model), by many independently acting genes of small effect (infinitesimal model), or by a combination, with frequency inversely related to effect(More)
Policies ensuring that research data are available on public archives are increasingly being implemented at the government [1], funding agency [2-4], and journal [5, 6] level. These policies are predicated on the idea that authors are poor stewards of their data, particularly over the long term [7], and indeed many studies have found that authors are often(More)
Sex ratio adjustment (SRA) of broods has received widespread interest as a means for optimizing parental investment in offspring. Classical explanations for the evolution of SRA focus on improving offspring fitness in light of resource availability or mate attractiveness. Here, we use genetic models to demonstrate that SRA can evolve to alleviate sexual(More)
Reproductive isolation can evolve between species as a byproduct of adaptation to different niches, through reinforcement, and by direct selection on mating preferences. We investigated the potential role of direct selection in the reproductive isolation between sympatric species of threespine sticklebacks. Each sympatric pair consists of a small-bodied(More)
Character displacement in signalling traits occurs when differences between species are greater in sympatry than where either species occurs alone. Finding character displacement in a signalling trait suggests that the trait has diverged as a result of interspecific interactions such as competition, aggression, predation, or reproductive interference. We(More)
One-allele isolating mechanisms should make the evolution of reproductive isolation between potentially hybridizing taxa easier than two-allele mechanisms, but the generality of one-allele mechanisms in nature has yet to be established. A potentially important one-allele mechanism is sexual imprinting, where the mate preferences of individuals are based on(More)
diseases. In addition, autophagy is unique as a mechanism that can remove entire organelles, an important task beyond the abilities of the proteasome that allows for the removal of damaged or obsolete organelles, potentially eliminating oxidative stress or allowing cellular remodeling. Do we know anything about its regulation? A little. In animal cells,(More)
BACKGROUND Access to prescription contraception is often limited by the availability of physicians, particularly in rural areas. Pharmacists are available but are not authorized in Canada to prescribe contraceptives, an innovation proved successful in the United States. It is unknown whether Canadian pharmacists, particularly those in rural areas, are(More)
Strong ecological selection on a genetic locus can maintain allele frequency differences between populations in different environments, even in the face of hybridization. When alleles at divergent loci come into tight linkage disequilibrium, selection acts on them as a unit and can significantly reduce gene flow. For populations interbreeding across a(More)