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In mammals, exposure to intense noise produces a permanent hearing loss called permanent threshold shift (PTS), whereas a moderate noise produces only a temporary threshold shift (TTS). Little is known about the molecular responses to such high intensity noise exposures. In this study we used gene arrays to examine the early response to acoustic(More)
Activation of heat shock factors (Hsfs) is one of the potential mechanisms for regulating the transcription of the heat shock proteins (Hsps) and certain other stress-responsive genes. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot and immunocytochemistry were used to examine the expression and localization of Hsf1, the(More)
Oxidative stress has been linked to noise- and drug-induced as well as age-related hearing loss. Antioxidants can attenuate the decline of cochlear structure and function after exposure to noise or drugs, but it is debated as to whether they can protect from age-related hearing loss. In a long-term longitudinal study, 10-month-old female CBA/J mice were(More)
The genes for heat shock proteins (Hsps) can be upregulated in response to cellular trauma, resulting in enhanced cell survival and protection. Hsp32, also known as heme oxygenase 1, catalyzes the degradation of heme to produce carbon monoxide and bilirubin, which play a variety of cytoprotective functions at physiological concentrations, and iron, which is(More)
This study is the first to demonstrate that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an immune system 'inflammatory' cytokine that is released by the developing otocyst, plays a role in regulating early innervation of the mouse and chick inner ear. We demonstrate that MIF is a major bioactive component of the previously uncharacterized otocyst-derived(More)
Commercially obtained aged male CBA/J mice presented a complex pattern of hearing loss and morphological changes. A significant threshold shift in auditory brainstem responses (ABR) occurred at 3 months of age at 4 kHz without apparent loss of hair cells, rising slowly at later ages accompanied by loss of apical hair cells. A delayed high-frequency deficit(More)
Cyclodextrins are sugar compounds that are increasingly finding medicinal uses due to their ability to complex with hydrophobic molecules. One cyclodextrin in particular, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), is used as a carrier to solubilize lipophilic drugs and is itself being considered as a therapeutic agent for treatment of Niemann-Pick Type C(More)
SLC44A2 (solute carrier 44a2), also known as CTL2 (choline transporter-like protein 2), is expressed in many supporting cell types in the cochlea and is implicated in hair cell survival and antibody-induced hearing loss. In mice with the mixed C57BL/6-129 background, homozygous deletion of Slc44a2 exons 3–10 (Slc44a2(Δ/Δ)resulted in high-frequency hearing(More)
In experimental animal models of auditory hair cell (HC) loss, insults such as noise or ototoxic drugs often lead to secondary changes or degeneration in non-sensory cells and neural components, including reduced density of spiral ganglion neurons, demyelination of auditory nerve fibers and altered cell numbers and innervation patterns in the cochlear(More)
The auditory sensory epithelium in non-mammalian vertebrates can replace lost hair cells by transdifferentiation of supporting cells, but this regenerative ability is lost in the mammalian cochlea. Future cell-based treatment of hearing loss may depend on stem cell transplantation or on transdifferentiation of endogenous cells in the cochlea. For both(More)
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