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Heart valve anomalies are some of the most common congenital heart defects, yet neither the genetic nor the epigenetic forces guiding heart valve development are well understood. When functioning normally, mature heart valves prevent intracardiac retrograde blood flow; before valves develop, there is considerable regurgitation, resulting in reversing (or(More)
Being able to acquire, visualize, and analyze 3D time series (4D data) from living embryos makes it possible to understand complex dynamic movements at early stages of embryonic development. Despite recent technological breakthroughs in 2D dynamic imaging, confocal microscopes remain quite slow at capturing optical sections at successive depths. However,(More)
The temporal alignment of nongated slice-sequences acquired at different axial positions in the living embryonic zebrafish heart permits the reconstruction of dynamic, three-dimensional data. This approach overcomes the current acquisition speed limitation of confocal microscopes for real-time three-dimensional imaging of fast processes. Current(More)
Recently developed confocal microscopes allow image acquisition at rapid frame-rates (e.g. 120 frames per second for images of size 512 by 512 pixels) and open new avenues for cardiac imaging at the microscopic scale. The reconstruction and analysis of dynamic 3D data of embryonic hearts require further image processing. The main challenges are the handling(More)
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