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The pattern of blood flow in the developing heart has long been proposed to play a significant role in cardiac morphogenesis. In response to flow-induced forces, cultured cardiac endothelial cells rearrange their cytoskeletal structure and change their gene expression profiles. To link such in vitro data to the intact heart, we performed quantitative in(More)
Heart valve anomalies are some of the most common congenital heart defects, yet neither the genetic nor the epigenetic forces guiding heart valve development are well understood. When functioning normally, mature heart valves prevent intracardiac retrograde blood flow; before valves develop, there is considerable regurgitation, resulting in reversing (or(More)
The embryonic vertebrate heart begins pumping blood long before the development of discernable chambers and valves. At these early stages, the heart tube has been described as a peristaltic pump. Recent advances in confocal laser scanning microscopy and four-dimensional visualization have warranted another look at early cardiac structure and function. We(More)
We report an accurate method for studying the functional dynamics of the beating embryonic zebrafish heart. The fast cardiac contraction rate and the high velocity of blood cells have made it difficult to study cellular and subcellular events relating to heart function in vivo. We have devised a dynamic three-dimensional acquisition, reconstruction, and(More)
Being able to acquire, visualize, and analyze 3D time series (4D data) from living embryos makes it possible to understand complex dynamic movements at early stages of embryonic development. Despite recent technological breakthroughs in 2D dynamic imaging, confocal microscopes remain quite slow at capturing optical sections at successive depths. However,(More)
BACKGROUND Color Doppler jet area (CDJA) is an important measure used to classify mitral regurgitation (MR) severity. The investigators hypothesized that the presence and configuration of multiple regurgitant jets can alter CDJA quantification for fixed regurgitant volumes. This has relevance to MR assessment prior to the treatment of valves with multiple(More)
The temporal alignment of nongated slice-sequences acquired at different axial positions in the living embryonic zebrafish heart permits the reconstruction of dynamic, three-dimensional data. This approach overcomes the current acquisition speed limitation of confocal microscopes for real-time three-dimensional imaging of fast processes. Current(More)
Being able to acquire, visualize and analyze 3D time-series (4D data) from living embryos makes it possible to understand complex dynamic movements at early stages of embryonic development. Despite recent technological breakthroughs in 2D dynamic imaging, confocal microscopes remain quite slow at capturing optical sections at successive depths. However,(More)
All Rights Reserved iii Acknowledgement First and foremost, I would like to thank my parents. It is their continual support and encouragement that have cultivated a lifelong passion for learning in me. Even as a little child, they have never turned me away from a " why " question. In addition, they are always reminding me 跌倒不應放棄 – " never give up despite(More)