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DEAD-box helicases play essential roles in RNA metabolism across species, but emerging data suggest that they have additional functions in immunity. Through RNAi screening, we identify an evolutionarily conserved and interferon-independent role for the DEAD-box helicase DDX17 in restricting Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-transmitted virus in the(More)
Viruses must gain entry into cells to establish infection. In general, viruses enter either at the plasma membrane or from intracellular endosomal compartments. Viruses that use endosomal pathways are dependent on the cellular factors that control this process; however, these genes have proven to be essential for endogenous cargo uptake, and thus are of(More)
Innate immunity is highly conserved and relies on pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (identified through their homology to Drosophila Toll) for pathogen recognition. Although Drosophila Toll is vital for immune recognition and defense, roles for the other eight Drosophila Tolls in immunity have remained elusive. Here we have(More)
Utilization of antiviral small interfering RNAs is thought to be largely restricted to plants, nematodes, and arthropods. In an effort to determine whether a physiological interplay exists between the host small RNA machinery and the cellular response to virus infection in mammals, we evaluated antiviral activity in the presence and absence of Dicer or(More)
Innate immune responses are characterized by precise gene expression whereby gene subsets are temporally induced to limit infection, although the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. We show that antiviral immunity in Drosophila requires the transcriptional pausing pathway, including negative elongation factor (NELF) that pauses RNA polymerase(More)
A unique facet of arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) infection is that the pathogens are orally acquired by an insect vector during the taking of a blood meal, which directly links nutrient acquisition and pathogen challenge. We show that the nutrient responsive ERK pathway is both induced by and restricts disparate arboviruses in Drosophila intestines,(More)
Vector-borne viruses are an important class of emerging and re-emerging pathogens; thus, an improved understanding of the cellular factors that modulate infection in their respective vertebrate and insect hosts may aid control efforts. In particular, cell-intrinsic antiviral pathways restrict vector-borne viruses including the type I interferon response in(More)
Enteric pathogens must overcome intestinal defenses to establish infection. In Drosophila, the ERK signaling pathway inhibits enteric virus infection. The intestinal microflora also impacts immunity but its role in enteric viral infection is unknown. Here we show that two signals are required to activate antiviral ERK signaling in the intestinal epithelium.(More)
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