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To analyze the loss of life expectancy (LLE) due to air pollution and the associated social cost, a dynamic model was developed that took into account the decrease of risk after the termination of an exposure to pollution. A key parameter was the time constant for the decrease of risk, for which estimates from studies of smoking were used. A sensitivity(More)
  • Ari Rabl
  • Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
  • 2003
This paper examines the relation between the results of epidemiologic studies of air pollution mortality and impact indicators that can be informative for environmental policy decisions. Using models that are simple and transparent, yet contain the essential features, it is shown that (1) number of deaths is not meaningful for air pollution, whereas loss of(More)
BACKGROUND Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding further co-benefits. Little is known, however,(More)
The methodology for evaluating the impacts and damage costs ('external costs') due to pollution from waste treatment is described and the results are presented, based on the ExternE project series of the European Commission. The damage costs of landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste are compared, with due account for energy and materials(More)
This article describes a simple model for quantifying the health impacts of toxic metal emissions. In contrast to most traditional models it calculates the expectation value of the total damage (summed over the total population and over all time) for typical emission sites, rather than "worst-case" estimates for specific sites or episodes. Such a model is(More)
Since much of the emission is in the form of metallic Hg whose atmospheric residence time is long enough to cause nearly uniform mixing in the hemisphere, much of the impact is global. This article presents a first estimate of global average neurotoxic impacts and costs by defining a comprehensive transfer factor for ingestion of methyl-Hg as ratio of(More)
-Even though most variations of solar concentrators have been studied or built at some time or other, an important class of concentrators has been overlooked until very recently. These novel concentrators have been called ideal because of their optical properties, and an example, the compound parabolic concentrator, is being tested at Argonne National(More)
BACKGROUND Presently, health costs associated with nitrate in drinking water are uncertain and not quantified. This limits proper evaluation of current policies and measures for solving or preventing nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The cost for society associated with nitrate is also relevant for integrated assessment of EU nitrogen policies(More)