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To analyze the loss of life expectancy (LLE) due to air pollution and the associated social cost, a dynamic model was developed that took into account the decrease of risk after the termination of an exposure to pollution. A key parameter was the time constant for the decrease of risk, for which estimates from studies of smoking were used. A sensitivity(More)
  • Ari Rabl
  • 2003
This paper examines the relation between the results of epidemiologic studies of air pollution mortality and impact indicators that can be informative for environmental policy decisions. Using models that are simple and transparent, yet contain the essential features, it is shown that (1) number of deaths is not meaningful for air pollution, whereas loss of(More)
This article examines the prospects for cost reductions of flat panel photovoltaic (PV) electricity. Current PV production cost ranges are presented, in terms of cost per peak W and cost per kWh, for single crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon, as well as for thin-film technologies. Possible decreases of these costs are assessed, as expected based on(More)
BACKGROUND Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding further co-benefits. Little is known, however,(More)
The methodology for evaluating the impacts and damage costs ('external costs') due to pollution from waste treatment is described and the results are presented, based on the ExternE project series of the European Commission. The damage costs of landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste are compared, with due account for energy and materials(More)
Since much of the emission is in the form of metallic Hg whose atmospheric residence time is long enough to cause nearly uniform mixing in the hemisphere, much of the impact is global. This article presents a first estimate of global average neurotoxic impacts and costs by defining a comprehensive transfer factor for ingestion of methyl-Hg as ratio of(More)
BACKGROUND Presently, health costs associated with nitrate in drinking water are uncertain and not quantified. This limits proper evaluation of current policies and measures for solving or preventing nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The cost for society associated with nitrate is also relevant for integrated assessment of EU nitrogen policies(More)
  • Ari Rabl
  • 2005
This article concerns the interpretation of epidemiological studies of air pollution mortality and the choice of indicators for quantifying the impact, for communication with policymakers. It is shown that the total mortality impact (measured by cohort studies) can only be quantified in terms of loss of life expectancy (LLE), not number of premature deaths.(More)