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Peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a devastating complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Here we test the hypothesis that the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel on primary afferent nerve fibers is involved in the pathogenesis of PDN, due to sustained activation by reactive compounds generated in DM. DM was induced by(More)
The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel is expressed on nociceptive primary afferent neurons. On the proximal nerve ending within the spinal dorsal horn, TRPA1 regulates transmission to spinal interneurons, and thereby pain hypersensitivity. Here we assessed whether the contribution of the spinal TRPA1 channel to pain hypersensitivity(More)
Previous results indicate that intaperitoneal administration of a TRPA1 channel antagonist attenuates diabetic hypersensitivity. We studied whether the antihypersensitivity effect induced by a TRPA1 channel antagonist in diabetic animals is explained by action on the TRPA1 channel in the skin, the spinal cord, or both. For comparison, we determined the(More)
The α2-adrenoceptors (ARs) are important modulators of a wide array of physiological responses. As only a few selective compounds for the three α2-AR subtypes (α2A , α2B and α2C ) have been available, the pharmacological profile of a new α2C-selective AR antagonist ORM-10921 is reported. Standard in vitro receptor assays and antagonism of α2, and α1-AR(More)
BACKGROUND The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel is expressed on nociceptive primary afferent nerve fibers. On the distal ending, it is involved in transduction of noxious stimuli, and on the proximal ending (within the spinal dorsal horn), it regulates transmission of nociceptive signals. Here we studied whether the cutaneous or(More)
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel antagonists have suppressed mechanical hypersensitivity in peripheral neuropathy, while their effect on ongoing neuropathic pain is not yet known. Here, we assessed whether blocking the TRPA1 channel induces place-preference, an index for the relief of ongoing pain, in two experimental rat models of(More)
The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel on peripheral terminals of nociceptive primary afferent nerve fibres contributes to the transduction of noxious stimuli to electrical signals, while on central endings in the spinal dorsal horn, it amplifies transmission to spinal interneurons and projection neurons. The centrally propagating(More)
Camera is becoming more common in mobile phones and it is commonly used for exchanging photos between people. The photos could be used for other purposes as well, such as gaming. This paper presents Assassin, a mobile multiplayer game using camera and photos as the main form of player-to-player interaction. The goal in the game is to catch other players in(More)
Electronic Forms are simple and light weight application framework based on structured information containing user interface (UI) with presentable information along with input fields used to collect data from the users. In addition to the UI Electronic forms also contains logic on what and how this user provided information is delivered back to the servers.(More)