Ari Kauppinen

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Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are recognised as potential threats to groundwater or other water environments subject to discharged effluents. In this study, the microbiological and nutrient removal properties of three different pilot-scale sand filters (SFs) were followed over a one-year period. Moreover, a separate phosphorus removal unit was(More)
A contaminated drinking water distribution network can be responsible for major outbreaks of infections. In this study, two chemical decontaminants, peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine, were used to test how a laboratory-scale pipeline system can be cleaned after simultaneous contamination with human adenovirus 40 (AdV40) and Escherichia coli. In addition,(More)
Wastewater is an important source of pathogenic enteric microorganisms in surface water and a major contaminating agent of drinking water. Although primary and secondary wastewater treatments reduce the numbers of microorganisms in wastewater, significant numbers of microbes can still be present in the effluent. The aim of this study was to test the(More)
Until recently, the freeze-drying process and formulation development have suffered from a lack of microscale analytical tools. Using such an analytical tool should decrease the required sample volume and also shorten the duration of the experiment compared to a laboratory scale setup. This study evaluated the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for in-line(More)
Evaluation of freeze-dried biopharmaceutical formulations requires careful analysis of multiple quality attributes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of near-infrared (NIR) imaging for fast analysis of water content and related physical properties in freeze-dried formulations. Model formulations were freeze-dried in well plates. Samples were(More)
This study assessed the validity of a multipoint near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method for in-line moisture content analysis during a freeze-drying process. It is known that the moisture content affects the stability of a freeze-dried product and hence it is a major critical quality attribute. Therefore assessment of the validity of an analytical method(More)
To evaluate the feasibility of producing solid dispersions with 3-fluid nozzle spray drying to improve the dissolution behavior of lipophilic drugs, 60 experiments were performed based on a Design of Experiment. Solid dispersions with mannitol as a hydrophilic matrix and diazepam as a model drug with a drug load of 20 wt-% were produced. The variables of(More)
Failures in the drinking water distribution system cause gastrointestinal outbreaks with multiple pathogens. A water distribution pipe breakage caused a community-wide waterborne outbreak in Vuorela, Finland, July 2012. We investigated this outbreak with advanced epidemiological and microbiological methods. A total of 473/2931 inhabitants (16%) responded to(More)
An increased number of suspected outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to bathing water were reported to the Finnish food- and waterborne outbreak (FWO) registry in July and August 2014. The investigation reports were assessed by a national outbreak investigation panel. Eight confirmed outbreaks were identified among the 15 suspected outbreaks linked to(More)
OBJECTIVE In general, the chemical and physical stability of amorphous cyclodextrin complexes and how storage affects their dissolution rate have not been widely reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the solid-state stability of a fast-dissolving perphenazine/β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complex, which has been found to be well absorbed after sublingual(More)