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Simian virus 40 (SV40) is unusual among animal viruses in that it enters cells through caveolae, and the internalized virus accumulates in a smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) compartment. Using video-enhanced, dual-colour, live fluorescence microscopy, we show the uptake of individual virus particles in CV-1 cells. After associating with caveolae, SV40(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a quality-control system for 'proof-reading' newly synthesized proteins, so that only native conformers reach their final destinations. Non-native conformers and incompletely assembled oligomers are retained, and, if misfolded persistently, they are degraded. As a large fraction of ER-synthesized proteins fail to fold and(More)
Being deeply connected to signalling, cell dynamics, growth, regulation, and defence, endocytic processes are linked to almost all aspects of cell life and disease. In this review, we focus on endosomes in the classical endocytic pathway, and on the programme of changes that lead to the formation and maturation of late endosomes/multivesicular bodies. The(More)
From a process involved in cell wall synthesis in archaea and some bacteria, N-linked glycosylation has evolved into the most common covalent protein modification in eukaryotic cells. The sugars are added to nascent proteins as a core oligosaccharide unit, which is then extensively modified by removal and addition of sugar residues in the endoplasmic(More)
N-linked oligosaccharides arise when blocks of 14 sugars are added cotranslationally to newly synthesized polypeptides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These glycans are then subjected to extensive modification as the glycoproteins mature and move through the ER via the Golgi complex to their final destinations inside and outside the cell. In the ER and(More)
Simian virus 40 (SV40) utilizes endocytosis through caveolae for infectious entry into host cells. We found that after binding to caveolae, virus particles induced transient breakdown of actin stress fibers. Actin was then recruited to virus-loaded caveolae as actin patches that served as sites for actin "tail" formation. Dynamin II was also transiently(More)
As obligatory intracellular parasites, viruses rely on host-cell functions for most aspects of their replication cycle. This is born out during entry, when most viruses that infect vertebrate and insect cells exploit the endocytic activities of the host cell to move into the cytoplasm. Viruses belonging to vaccinia, adeno, picorna and other virus families(More)
Although transiently associated with numerous newly synthesized proteins, BiP has not been shown to be an essential component directly linked to the folding and oligomerization of newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. To determine whether it is needed as a molecular chaperone, we analyzed the maturation of an endogenous yeast(More)