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Astrocytes support neuronal antioxidant capacity by releasing glutathione, which is cleaved to cysteine in brain extracellular space. Free cysteine is then taken up by neurons through excitatory amino acid transporter 3 [EAAT3; also termed Slc1a1 (solute carrier family 1 member 1)] to support de novo glutathione synthesis. Activation of the nuclear factor(More)
C57BL/6 inbred mice have been widely used as research models; however, widespread demand has led to the creation of several B6 substrains with markedly different phenotypes. In this study, we report that two substrains of C57BL/6 mice, C57BL/6J (B6J) and C57BL/6NCrl (B6C), separated over 50 years ago at two different breeding facilities differ significantly(More)
A genome-scale RNAi screen was performed in a mammalian cell-based assay to identify modifiers of mutant huntingtin toxicity. Ontology analysis of suppressor data identified processes previously implicated in Huntington's disease, including proteolysis, glutamate excitotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition to established mechanisms, the(More)
BACKGROUND Amyloid β (Aβ) accumulates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Microglial activation also occurs in AD, and this inflammatory response may contribute to disease progression. Microglial activation can be induced by Aβ, but the mechanisms by which this occurs have not been defined. The nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) regulates(More)
OBJECTIVE Dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD) is accompanied by oxidative stress and preceded by glutathione depletion. The development of disease-modifying therapies for PD has been hindered by a paucity of animal models that mimic these features and demonstrate an age-related progression. The EAAC1(-/-) mouse may be useful in this(More)
The brain inflammatory response induced by stroke contributes to cell death and impairs neurogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a coactivator of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and required for NF-kappaB-mediated inflammatory responses. Here we evaluated PARP inhibition as a means of suppressing post-stroke inflammation and improving(More)
GABAA receptors mediate the majority of inhibitory neurotransmission in the CNS. Genetic deletion of the alpha1 subunit of GABAA receptors results in a loss of alpha1-mediated fast inhibitory currents and a marked reduction in density of GABAA receptors. A grossly normal phenotype of alpha1-deficient mice suggests the presence of neuronal adaptation to(More)
EAAC1 is a neuronal glutamate and cysteine transporter. EAAC1 uptake of cysteine provides substrate for neuronal glutathione synthesis, which plays a key role in both antioxidant defenses and intracellular zinc binding. Here we evaluated the role of EAAC1 in neuronal resistance to ischemia. EAAC1(-/-) mice subjected to transient cerebral ischemia exhibited(More)
A spectrophotometric hemoglobin assay is widely used to estimate the extent of brain hemorrhage by measuring the amount of hemoglobin in the brain. However, this method requires using the entire brain sample, leaving none for histology or other assays. Other widely used measures of gross brain hemorrhage are generally semi-quantitative and can miss subtle(More)
Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis remains one of the most common methods for hypothesis generation from high throughput datasets. However, we believe that researchers strive to test other hypotheses that fall outside of GO. Here, we developed and evaluated a tool for hypothesis generation from gene or protein lists using ontological concepts present in(More)