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Astrocytes support neuronal antioxidant capacity by releasing glutathione, which is cleaved to cysteine in brain extracellular space. Free cysteine is then taken up by neurons through excitatory amino acid transporter 3 [EAAT3; also termed Slc1a1 (solute carrier family 1 member 1)] to support de novo glutathione synthesis. Activation of the nuclear factor(More)
A genome-scale RNAi screen was performed in a mammalian cell-based assay to identify modifiers of mutant huntingtin toxicity. Ontology analysis of suppressor data identified processes previously implicated in Huntington's disease, including proteolysis, glutamate excitotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition to established mechanisms, the(More)
The brain inflammatory response induced by stroke contributes to cell death and impairs neurogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a coactivator of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and required for NF-kappaB-mediated inflammatory responses. Here we evaluated PARP inhibition as a means of suppressing post-stroke inflammation and improving(More)
BACKGROUND Amyloid β (Aβ) accumulates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Microglial activation also occurs in AD, and this inflammatory response may contribute to disease progression. Microglial activation can be induced by Aβ, but the mechanisms by which this occurs have not been defined. The nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) regulates(More)
OBJECTIVE Dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD) is accompanied by oxidative stress and preceded by glutathione depletion. The development of disease-modifying therapies for PD has been hindered by a paucity of animal models that mimic these features and demonstrate an age-related progression. The EAAC1(-/-) mouse may be useful in this(More)
GABAA receptors mediate the majority of inhibitory neurotransmission in the CNS. Genetic deletion of the alpha1 subunit of GABAA receptors results in a loss of alpha1-mediated fast inhibitory currents and a marked reduction in density of GABAA receptors. A grossly normal phenotype of alpha1-deficient mice suggests the presence of neuronal adaptation to(More)
EAAC1 is a neuronal glutamate and cysteine transporter. EAAC1 uptake of cysteine provides substrate for neuronal glutathione synthesis, which plays a key role in both antioxidant defenses and intracellular zinc binding. Here we evaluated the role of EAAC1 in neuronal resistance to ischemia. EAAC1(-/-) mice subjected to transient cerebral ischemia exhibited(More)
Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis remains one of the most common methods for hypothesis generation from high throughput datasets. However, we believe that researchers strive to test other hypotheses that fall outside of GO. Here, we developed and evaluated a tool for hypothesis generation from gene or protein lists using ontological concepts present in(More)
Biomedical research has entered a period of renewed vigor with the introduction and rapid development of genomic technologies and next-generation sequencing methods. This research paradigm produces extremely large datasets that are both difficult to store and challenging to mine for relevant data. Additionally, the thorough exploration of such datasets(More)
High-throughput biological experiments commonly result in a list of genes or proteins of interest. In order to understand the observed changes of the genes and to generate new hypotheses, one needs to understand the functions and roles of the genes and how those functions relate to the experimental conditions. Typically, statistical tests are performed in(More)
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