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The structure of the adeno-associated virus (AAV-2) has been determined to 3-A resolution by x-ray crystallography. AAV is being developed as a vector for gene therapy to treat diseases including hemophilia, cancer, and cystic fibrosis. As in the distantly related autonomous parvoviruses, the capsid protein has a beta-barrel fold, but long loops between the(More)
Breast cancer is a major cause of death in Western women, with a 10% lifetime risk of the disease. Most breast cancers are estrogen-dependent. Molecular therapies for breast cancer have developed rapidly in the past few decades and future treatment strategies are being investigated. The selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator tamoxifen, which until now(More)
Human type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase plays a crucial role in local androgen formation in prostate tissue. Several chemicals were synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit this enzyme, and a series of estradiol derivatives bearing a lactone on the D-ring were found to inhibit its activity efficiently. The crystal structure of the type 5(More)
The HIV-1 pandemic continues to expand while no effective vaccine or cure is yet available. Existing therapies have managed to limit mortality and control viral proliferation, but are associated with side effects, do not cure the disease and are subject to development of resistance. Finding new therapeutic targets and drugs is therefore crucial. We have(More)
Arginine kinase is a member of the phosphagen kinase family that includes creatine kinase and likely shares a common reaction mechanism in catalyzing the buffering of cellular ATP energy levels. Abstraction of a proton from the substrate guanidinium by a catalytic base has long been thought to be an early mechanistic step. The structure of arginine kinase(More)
Crystal structure of native cinnamomin isoform III and its comparison with other ribosome inactivating proteins Arezki Azzi,1,2y Tao Wang,1y Dao-Wei Zhu, Yong-Shui Zou, Wang-Yi Liu, and Sheng-Xiang Lin* 1 Structural Biology Platform, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology (IBCB), Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences (SIBS), Chinese Academy of(More)
Three series of steroid derivatives, enones 1, enols 2 and saturated alcohols 3, were easily synthesized from estrone according to a sequence of three reactions: an aldol condensation with an aromatic aldehyde (R(a-g)CHO) to afford 1, the carbonyl reduction of 1 to obtain the enol 2, and the double bond reduction of 2 to give 3 with the R(a-g) group(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne disease that emerged in North America. In 2002 it caused the largest arboviral meningoencephalitis outbreak ever recorded in the US and Canada. The key enzyme responsible for the replication of the virus is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) enzyme represented by nonstructural protein NS5 in WNV. To understand(More)