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The multiple biological activities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are mediated by two distinct cell surface receptors of 55 kd (TNFRp55) and 75 kd (TNFRp75). Using gene targeting, we generated a TNFRp55-deficient mouse strain. Cells from TNFRp55-/-mutant mice lack expression of TNFRp55 but display normal numbers of high affinity TNFRp75 molecules. Thymocyte(More)
Caspases are fundamental components of the mammalian apoptotic machinery, but the precise contribution of individual caspases is controversial. CPP32 (caspase 3) is a prototypical caspase that becomes activated during apoptosis. In this study, we took a comprehensive approach to examining the role of CPP32 in apoptosis using mice, embryonic stem (ES) cells,(More)
FADD (also known as Mort-1) is a signal transducer downstream of cell death receptor CD95 (also called Fas). CD95, tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNFR-1), and death receptor 3 (DR3) did not induce apoptosis in FADD-deficient embryonic fibroblasts, whereas DR4, oncogenes E1A and c-myc, and chemotherapeutic agent adriamycin did. Mice with a deletion(More)
Lymphocyte-specific interferon regulatory factor (LSIRF) (now called IRF4) is a transcription factor expressed only in lymphocytes. Mice deficient in IRF4 showed normal distribution of B and T lymphocyes at 4 to 5 weeks of age but developed progressive generalized lymphadenopathy. IRF4-deficient mice exhibited a profound reduction in serum immunoglobulin(More)
TRAF2 is an intracellular signal-transducing protein recruited to the TNFR1 and TNFR2 receptors following TNF stimulation. To investigate the physiological role of TRAF2, we generated TRAF2-deficient mice. traf2-/- mice appeared normal at birth but became progressively runted and died prematurely. Atrophy of the thymus and spleen and depletion of B cell(More)
The role of the cell-surface molecule CTLA-4 in the regulation of T cell activation has been controversial. Here, lymph nodes and spleens of CTLA-4-deficient mice accumulated T cell blasts with up-regulated activation markers. These blast cells also infiltrated liver, heart, lung, and pancreas tissue, and amounts of serum immunoglobulin were elevated. The(More)
The outcome of T-cell responses after T-cell encounter with specific antigens is modulated by co-stimulatory signals, which are required for both lymphocyte activation and development of adaptive immunity. ICOS, an inducible co-stimulator with homology to CD28, is expressed on activated, but not resting T cells, and shows T-cell co-stimulatory function in(More)
T cell receptor stimulation without costimulation is insufficient for the induction of an optimal immune response. It is thought that engagement of the CD28 molecule with its ligand B7 provides an essential costimulatory signal without which full activation of T cells cannot occur. A mouse strain with a defective CD28 gene was established. Development of T(More)
The leukocyte integrin LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) plays an important role in lymphocyte recirculation and homotypic interactions. Leukocytes from mice lacking CD11a displayed defects in in vitro homotypic aggregation, in proliferation in mixed lymphocyte reactions, and in response to mitogen. Mutant mice mounted normal cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses against(More)
Distinct and evolutionarily conserved signal transduction cascades mediate survival or death in response to developmental and environmental cues. The stress-activated protein kinases, or Jun N-terminal kinases (SAPKs/JNKs), are activated in response to a variety of cellular stresses such as changes in osmolarity and metabolism, DNA damage, heat shock,(More)