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FADD (also known as Mort-1) is a signal transducer downstream of cell death receptor CD95 (also called Fas). CD95, tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNFR-1), and death receptor 3 (DR3) did not induce apoptosis in FADD-deficient embryonic fibroblasts, whereas DR4, oncogenes E1A and c-myc, and chemotherapeutic agent adriamycin did. Mice with a deletion(More)
Caspases are fundamental components of the mammalian apoptotic machinery, but the precise contribution of individual caspases is controversial. CPP32 (caspase 3) is a prototypical caspase that becomes activated during apoptosis. In this study, we took a comprehensive approach to examining the role of CPP32 in apoptosis using mice, embryonic stem (ES) cells,(More)
TRAF2 is an intracellular signal-transducing protein recruited to the TNFR1 and TNFR2 receptors following TNF stimulation. To investigate the physiological role of TRAF2, we generated TRAF2-deficient mice. traf2-/- mice appeared normal at birth but became progressively runted and died prematurely. Atrophy of the thymus and spleen and depletion of B cell(More)
The outcome of T-cell responses after T-cell encounter with specific antigens is modulated by co-stimulatory signals, which are required for both lymphocyte activation and development of adaptive immunity. ICOS, an inducible co-stimulator with homology to CD28, is expressed on activated, but not resting T cells, and shows T-cell co-stimulatory function in(More)
Lymphocyte-specific interferon regulatory factor (LSIRF) (now called IRF4) is a transcription factor expressed only in lymphocytes. Mice deficient in IRF4 showed normal distribution of B and T lymphocyes at 4 to 5 weeks of age but developed progressive generalized lymphadenopathy. IRF4-deficient mice exhibited a profound reduction in serum immunoglobulin(More)
Costimulation through the inducible costimulator (ICOS) and its ligand (ICOSL) is essential for T cell-dependent B cell responses, but the cellular and temporal dynamics underlying its in vivo effects are poorly defined. Here we have shown that Icosl(-/-) and Icos(-/-) mice had similar phenotypes and that ICOS-ICOSL costimulation modulated the early but not(More)
T cell receptor stimulation without costimulation is insufficient for the induction of an optimal immune response. It is thought that engagement of the CD28 molecule with its ligand B7 provides an essential costimulatory signal without which full activation of T cells cannot occur. A mouse strain with a defective CD28 gene was established. Development of T(More)
T-cell activation requires co-stimulation through receptors such as CD28 and antigen-specific signalling through the T-cell antigen receptor. Here we describe a new murine costimulatory receptor-ligand pair. The receptor, which is related to CD28 and is the homologue of the human protein ICOS, is expressed on activated T cells and resting memory T cells.(More)
NF-ATc1 is a member of a family of genes that encodes the cytoplasmic component of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT). In activated T cells, nuclear NF-AT binds to the promoter regions of multiple cytokine genes and induces their transcription. The role of NF-ATc1 was investigated in recombination activating gene-1 (RAG-1)-deficient blastocyst(More)
The leukocyte integrin LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) plays an important role in lymphocyte recirculation and homotypic interactions. Leukocytes from mice lacking CD11a displayed defects in in vitro homotypic aggregation, in proliferation in mixed lymphocyte reactions, and in response to mitogen. Mutant mice mounted normal cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses against(More)