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We present the first global parameterization and validation of a novel charge model, called AM1-BCC, which quickly and efficiently generates high-quality atomic charges for computer simulations of organic molecules in polar media. The goal of the charge model is to produce atomic charges that emulate the HF/6-31G* electrostatic potential (ESP) of a(More)
We present a binding free energy function that consists of force field terms supplemented by solvation terms. We used this function to calibrate the solvation model along with the binding interaction terms in a self-consistent manner. The motivation for this approach was that the solute dielectric-constant dependence of calculated hydration gas-to-water(More)
Drug resistance is a major problem affecting the clinical efficacy of antiretroviral agents, including protease inhibitors, in the treatment of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)/AIDS. Consequently, the elucidation of the mechanisms by which HIV-1 protease inhibitors maintain antiviral activity in the presence of mutations is(More)
Significant advances have led to receptor induced-fit and conformational selection models for describing bimolecular recognition, but a more comprehensive view must evolve to also include ligand shape and conformational changes. Here, we describe an example where a ligand's "structural hinge" influences potency by inducing an "L-shape" bioactive(More)
The Src-homology-3 (SH3) domain of the Caenorhabditis elegans protein Sem-5 binds proline-rich sequences. It is reported that the SH3 domains broadly accept amide N-substituted residues instead of only recognizing prolines on the basis of side chain shape or rigidity. We have studied the interactions between Sem-5 and its ligands using molecular dynamics(More)
The carboxylate moiety is an important pharmacophore in the medicinal chemist's arsenal and is sometimes an irreplaceable functionality in drug-target interactions. Thus, practical guidance on its use in the most optimized manner would be a welcome addition to rational drug design. Key physicochemical and ADMET-PK properties from a dataset of drugs(More)
An often overlooked source of chirality is atropisomerism, which results from slow rotation along a bond axis due to steric hindrance and/or electronic factors. If undetected or not managed properly, this time-dependent chirality has the potential to lead to serious consequences, because atropisomers can be present as distinct enantiomers or(More)
Benzimidazole-based allosteric inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase were diversified to a variety of topologically related scaffolds. Replacement of the polar benzimidazole core by lipophilic indoles led to inhibitors with improved potency in the cell-based subgenomic HCV replicon system. Transposing the indole scaffold into a(More)
An assay recapitulating the 3' processing activity of HIV-1 integrase (IN) was used to screen the Boehringer Ingelheim compound collection. Hit-to-lead and lead optimization beginning with compound 1 established the importance of the C3 and C4 substituent to antiviral potency against viruses with different aa124/aa125 variants of IN. The importance of the(More)