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BACKGROUND The continued presence of polio in northern India poses challenges to the interruption of wild poliovirus transmission and the management of poliovirus risks in the post-eradication era. We aimed to assess the current immunity profile after routine doses of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and numerous supplemental doses of type-1(More)
Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is efficacious against paralytic disease, but its effect on mucosal immunity is debated. We assessed the efficacy of IPV in boosting mucosal immunity. Participants received IPV, bivalent 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV), or no vaccine. A bOPV challenge was administered 4 weeks later, and excretion was assessed 3,(More)
BACKGROUND Poliovirus types 1 and 3 co-circulate in poliomyelitis-endemic countries. We aimed to assess the immunogenicity of a novel bivalent types 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV). METHODS We did a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial to assess the superiority of monovalent type 2 OPV (mOPV2), mOPV3, or bOPV over trivalent OPV (tOPV), and(More)
BACKGROUND To provide the polio eradication initiative with more immunogenic oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs), we evaluated newly developed monovalent type 1 OPV (mOPV1) among infants in India. METHODS Two double-blind randomized controlled clinical trials compared two mOPV1s (mOPV1 A and mOPV1 B) versus trivalent OPV (tOPV X) given at birth (trial I), or(More)
BACKGROUND Polio eradication needs a new routine immunisation schedule--three or four doses of bivalent type 1 and type 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) and one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), but no immunogenicity data are available for this schedule. We aimed to assess immunogenicity of this vaccine schedule. METHODS We did an open-label,(More)
Abnormal vaginal discharge (AVD) caused by a variety of reproductive tract infections is a widespread syndrome among women in India and in other developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a polyherbal formulation, Praneem, can be used for the regression of the syndrome. A phase IotaIota randomized controlled study was carried(More)
For the global eradication of poliomyelitis to succeed it is necessary to address the problem of type 1 poliovirus infection in those last remaining regions and countries where type 1 disease remains endemic. By general consensus among experts, prevention and eradication of type 1 infection would not be achieved using the currently available trivalent oral(More)