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The transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in regulating mood. In rodents, increased CREB activity within the NAc produces depression-like signs including anhedonia, whereas disruption of CREB activity by expression of a dominant-negative CREB (mCREB, which acts as a CREB(More)
Stress triggers psychiatric conditions including depressive and anxiety disorders. The mechanisms by which stress produces persistent changes in behavior are not fully understood. Here we show in rats that stress (footshock) activates the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) within the nucleus accumbens shell (NAS), a brain area(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that a novel type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan called echo planar magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (EP-MRSI) has mood-elevating actions in humans during the depressive phases of bipolar disorder. We examined whether a low-energy component of EP-MRSI (low-field magnetic stimulation [LFMS]) has(More)
We report that GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1), the rate-limiting enzyme for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, is a key modulator of peripheral neuropathic and inflammatory pain. BH4 is an essential cofactor for catecholamine, serotonin and nitric oxide production. After axonal injury, concentrations of BH4 rose in primary sensory neurons, owing to(More)
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical brain area for reward and motivated behavior. Accumulating evidence suggests that altered function of the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) within the NAc is involved in depressive behavior. In rats, stress activates CREB within the NAc, and elevation of CREB expression in this region(More)
Drugs of abuse alter expression of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits (GluRs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key component of brain reward systems. The impact of this regulation on general motivational states is unclear. Here, we used herpes simplex virus vectors to examine how transient increases in the expression of GluR1 or GluR2 protein in the(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic methamphetamine abusers exhibit deficits in tasks requiring intact prefrontal cortex function, and prefrontal cortex dysfunction has been implicated in the loss of control over drug use. This study used a combination of behavioral and electrophysiologic assessments in rats with a history of long access methamphetamine self-administration(More)
BACKGROUND Cholesterol may have a role in the pathophysiology of depression. Lowering cholesterol levels with statins reduces risks for cardiovascular events, and there is clinical evidence that statins exert neuroprotective properties not fully explained by their effects on serum cholesterol levels. Altered cholesterol levels can affect serotonergic(More)
Methamphetamine (meth) addicts often exhibit enduring cognitive and neural deficits that likely contribute to persistent drug seeking and the high rates of relapse. These deficits may be related to changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and its glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, we performed in vivo microdialysis in the PFC and(More)
Methamphetamine (meth) addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder that often produces persistent cognitive deficits. These include decreased cognitive flexibility, which may prevent meth addicts from altering their habitual drug abuse and leave them more susceptible to relapse. Multiple factors including low rates of compliance with research study(More)