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This study characterizes an animal model of persistent mechanical hyperalgesia induced by repeated intramuscular injections of low pH saline. Saline at pH 4, 5, 6, or 7.2 was injected twice, 2 to 10 days apart, into the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. To quantify hyperalgesia, paw withdrawal latency to radiant heat (heat hyperalgesia) and withdrawal threshold(More)
Although transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is used extensively in inflammatory joint conditions such as arthritis, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study aims to demonstrate an opiate-mediated activation of descending inhibitory pathways from the rostral ventral medulla (RVM) in the antihyperalgesia produced by low- (4 Hz) or(More)
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