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The success of the Internet is remarkable in light of the decentralized manner in which it is designed and operated. Unlike small scale networks, the Internet is built and controlled by a large number of disperate service providers who are not interested in any global optimization. Instead, providers simply seek to maximize their own profit by charging(More)
In this paper we initiate the study of how collusion alters the quality of solutions obtained in competitive games. The price of anarchy aims to measure the cost of the lack of coordination by comparing the quality of a Nash equilibrium to that of a centrally designed optimal solution. This notion assumes that players act not only selfishly, but also(More)
Programming language interpreters, proving equations (e.g. <i>x</i><sup>3</sup> = <i>x</i> implies the ring is Abelian), abstract data types, program transformation and optimization, and even computation itself (e.g., turing machine) can all be specified by a set of rules, called a rewrite system. Two fundamental properties of a rewrite system are the(More)
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