Ara Arutunyan

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Many arrhythmias are believed to be triggered by ectopic sources arising from the border of the ischemic tissue. However, the development of ectopic activity from individual sources to a larger mass of cardiac tissue remains poorly understood. To address this critical issue, we used monolayers of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to create conditions that(More)
We developed a new experimental approach to study the effects of local injury in a multicellular preparation and tested the ability of the method to induce reperfusion arrhythmias in cardiomyocyte monolayers. A small region of injury was created using geometrically defined flows of control and ischemia-like solutions. Calcium transients were acquired(More)
Blebbistatin is a recently discovered myosin II inhibitor. It is rapidly becoming a compound of choice to reduce motion artifacts during cardiac optical mapping, as well as to study cell motility and cell invasion. Although blebbistatin has a number of advantages over other electromechanical uncouplers, many of its properties have yet to be addressed. Here(More)
2003.—By using both experimental and theoretical means, we have addressed the progression of ectopic activity from individual cardiac cells to a multicellular two-dimensional network. Experimental conditions that favor ectopic activity have been created by local perfusion of a small area of cardiomyocyte network (I-zone) with an isoproterenol-hepta-nol(More)
We studied the origins of ectopic beats during low-flow reperfusion after acute regional ischemia in excised rat hearts. The left anterior descending coronary artery was cannulated. Perfusate was delivered to the cannula using an high-performance liquid chromatography pump. This provided not only precise control of flow rate but also avoided mechanical(More)
We aim to understand the formation of abnormal waves of activity from myocardial regions with diminished cell-to-cell coupling. En route to this goal, we studied the behavior of a heterogeneous myocyte network in which a sharp coupling gradient was placed under conditions of increasing network automaticity. Experiments were conducted in monolayers of(More)
Two cystatins were purified from tissue extract of bovine brain by alkaline treatment, acetone fractionation, gel chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and affinity chromatography on S-carboxymethyl-papain-Sepharose. One of the inhibitors had a relatively high molecular mass, 25 kDa (HMM-cystatin) with pI 4.7, and the other, 11 kDa (LMM-cystatin) with pI 5.23.(More)
Two fluorescent derivatives of substance P (SP) (Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2) were prepared by chemical modification of the native peptide by pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (pyridoxal-P). The formation of both pyridoxal-P-derivatives of SP is the result of one modification procedure. The determination of the amino acid composition showed that in(More)
Synaptosomes purified from spinal cord and from different rat brain areas exhibit peptide hydrolase activity, cleaving substance P (SP), bradykinin, THRH, LHRH, and neurotensin. The lowest activity for all the peptides tested was found in spinal cord, while the region with the highest degrading activity depended on the substrate: for substance P, it was(More)