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This paper identifies key political and technical issues involved in the development of an appropriate resource allocation and budgetary system for the public health sector, using experience gained in the Province of Balochistan, Pakistan. The resource allocation and budgetary system is a critical, yet often neglected, component of any decentralization(More)
Visible light LEDs, due to their numerous advantages, are expected to become the dominant indoor lighting technology. These lights can also be switched ON/OFF at high frequency, enabling their additional use for wireless communication and indoor positioning. In this article, visible LED light--based indoor positioning systems are surveyed and classified(More)
This paper reports on two studies in the province of Balochistan, Pakistan, analyzing the costs of primary care facilities and district and divisional hospitals. There are no known previous cost studies within Balochistan and the information gained is a critical element in developing a more rational allocation of resources within the health sector. The(More)
Recently, the use of LED-based visible light communication (VLC) for short-range and low data rate applications has become an area of great interest for research and development communities. LED-based VLC systems consume less power and offer more secure communication link when compared with other wireless technologies. This article introduces the use of(More)
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